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What is the standard free energy change, ∆ G °, for a reaction? What is the standard free energy of formation, Δ G f ∘ for a substance? How are Δ G f ∘ values used to calculate Δ G rxn ∘ ? How can you use Hess’s law to calculate Δ G rxn ∘ ? How can you use ∆H ° and ∆ S ° values to calculate Δ G rxn ∘ ? Of the functions ∆ H°, ∆ S °, and ∆ G °, which depends most strongly on temperature? When ∆ G ° is calculated at temperatures other than 25°C,what assumptions are generally made concerning ∆ H° and ∆ S °?

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 16, Problem 6RQ
Textbook Problem
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What is the standard free energy change, ∆G°, for a reaction? What is the standard free energy of formation, Δ G f for a substance? How are Δ G f values used to calculate Δ G rxn ? How can you use Hess’s law to calculate Δ G rxn ? How can you use ∆H° and ∆S° values to calculate Δ G rxn ? Of the functions ∆H°,S°, and ∆G°, which depends most strongly on temperature? When ∆G° is calculated at temperatures other than 25°C,what assumptions are generally made concerning ∆ and ∆S°?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon Gibbs free energy and Hess law are to be stated.

Concept introduction: Thermodynamics is associated with heat, temperature and its relation with energy and work. It helps us to predict whether a process will take place or not. But it gives no information about the time required for the process. The terms associated with thermodynamics are system, surrounding, entropy, spontaneity and many more.

Explanation of Solution

The standard free energy (ΔGrxn0)  is the difference in the sum of the free energies of all the products and all the reactants.

The standard free energy of formation ΔGf0 is the change in energy during the formation of 1 mole of a substance from its constituent elements keeping all the reactants and products in their standard states.

The values of ΔGf0 are used to calculate ΔGrxn0 .

Consider a general reaction.

Cdiamond(s)+O2(g)CO2(g)ΔG10=397kJ (1)

Cgraphite(s)+O2(g)CO2(g)ΔG20=394kJ (2)

The equation (2) is reversed. The resultant reaction is,

Cdiamond(s)Cgraphite(s)

The ΔGrxn0 is calculated as,

ΔGrxn0=ΔG20ΔG10=397kJ+394kJ=3kJ

Therefore, Hess law is used to calculate ΔGrxn0

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Chapter 16 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 16 - For the process A(l) A(g), which direction is...Ch. 16 - For a liquid, which would you expect to be larger,...Ch. 16 - Gas A2 reacts with gas B2 to form gas AB at a...Ch. 16 - What types of experiments can be carried out to...Ch. 16 - A friend tells you, Free energy G and pressure P...Ch. 16 - You remember that G is related to RT ln(K) but...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Is Ssurr favorable or unfavorable for exothermic...Ch. 16 - At 1 atm, liquid water is heated above 100C. 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Predict the...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen cyanide is produced industrially by the...Ch. 16 - From data in Appendix 4, calculate H, S, and G for...Ch. 16 - The major industrial use of hydrogen is in the...Ch. 16 - For the reaction at 298 K, 2NO2(g)N2O4(g) the...Ch. 16 - At 100C and 1.00 atm, H = 40.6 kJ/mol for the...Ch. 16 - Given the following data:...Ch. 16 - Given the following data:...Ch. 16 - For the reaction SF4(g)+F2(g)SF6(g) the value of G...Ch. 16 - The value of G for the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2POCl3(g)2PCl3(g)+O2(g) a....Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate H, S and G...Ch. 16 - Consider two reactions for the production of...Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate G for the...Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate G for the...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2NO2(g)N2O4(g) For each of...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 16 - One of the reactions that destroys ozone in the...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen sulfide can be removed from natural gas...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 25.0C:...Ch. 16 - The standard free energies of formation and the...Ch. 16 - Calculate G forH2O(g)+12O2(g)H2O2(g) at 600. K,...Ch. 16 - The Ostwald process for the commercial production...Ch. 16 - Cells use the hydrolysis of adenosine...Ch. 16 - One reaction that occurs in human metabolism is...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 800. K:...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 298 K:...Ch. 16 - Consider the relationship In(K)=HRT+SR The...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant K for the reaction...Ch. 16 - Using Appendix 4 and the following data, determine...Ch. 16 - Some water is placed in a coffee-cup calorimeter....Ch. 16 - Consider the following system at equilibrium at...Ch. 16 - Calculate the entropy change for the vaporization...Ch. 16 - As O2(l) is cooled at 1 atm, it freezes at 54.5 K...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 16 - Using the following data, calculate the value of...Ch. 16 - Many biochemical reactions that occur in cells...Ch. 16 - Carbon monoxide is toxic because it bonds much...Ch. 16 - In the text, the equation G=G+RTIn(Q) was derived...Ch. 16 - Consider the reactions...Ch. 16 - Use the equation in Exercise 79 to determine H and...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the following diagram of free energy (G)...Ch. 16 - Which of the following reactions (or processes)...Ch. 16 - For rubidium Hvapo=69.0KJ/mol at 686C, its boiling...Ch. 16 - Given the thermodynamic data below, calculate S...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction: H2S(g)+SO2(g)3S(g)+2H2O(l)...Ch. 16 - The following reaction occurs in pure water:...Ch. 16 - Consider the dissociation of a weak acid HA (Ka =...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction: PCl3(g)+Cl2(g)PCl5(g) At...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant for a certain reaction...Ch. 16 - For the following reactions at constant pressure,...Ch. 16 - The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O(l) at...Ch. 16 - Consider two perfectly insulated vessels. 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