BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074
BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 19, Problem 1PS
Textbook Problem

Write balanced equations for the following half-reactions. Specify whether each is an oxidation or reduction.

  1. (a) Cr(s) → Cr3+(aq)⇄(in acid)
  2. (b) AsH3(g) → As(s)⇄(in acid)
  3. (c) VO3(aq) → V2+(aq)⇄(in acid)
  4. (d) Ag(s) → Ag2O(s)⇄(in base)

Expert Solution

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:    

The balanced equation for the following half reaction has to be identified and also specify whether the reaction is an oxidation or reduction reaction.

(a) Cr(s)     Cr3+(aq)              (in acid)

Concept introduction:

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
  6. 6. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

Answer to Problem 1PS

Balanced equation: Cr(s)  Cr3+(aq) + 3e-

It is a oxidation reaction.

Explanation of Solution

The given reaction:

Cr(s) Cr3+(aq)

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.

    Cr(s) Cr3+(aq)

  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.

    Cr(s) Cr3+(aq)

    No need to add water because oxygen atoms are already balanced.

  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.

    Cr(s) Cr3+(aq)

  4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge

    Cr(s)  Cr3+(aq) + 3e-

  5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

    Cr(s)  Cr3+(aq) + 3e-

    Therefore, the balanced half cell reaction is as follows.

    Cr(s)  Cr3+(aq) + 3e-

Oxidation state of chromium increases in the above reaction.

0to+3

Therefore, it is an oxidation reaction.

Expert Solution

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:    

The balanced equation for the following half reaction has to be identified and also specify whether the reaction is an oxidation or reduction reaction.

(b) AsH3(g) As(s)                    (in acid)

Concept introduction:

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 6. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 7. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 8. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 9. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 10. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 7. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 8. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 9. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 10. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 11. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
  6. 12. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

Answer to Problem 1PS

The balanced reaction

AsH3(g)  As(s) + 3H++3e:

It is an oxidation reaction.

Explanation of Solution

The given reaction:

AsH3(g)  As(s)

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.

    AsH3(g)  As(s)

  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.

    AsH3(g)  As(s)

  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.

    AsH3(g)  As(s)+3H+(aq)

  4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.

    AsH3(g)  As(s) + 3H+(aq) + 3e-

  5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

    AsH3(g)  As(s) + 3H+(aq) + 3e-

    Therefore, the balanced half cell reaction is as follows.

    AsH3(g)  As(s) + 3H+(aq) + 3e-

    From the above reaction Hydrogen atom oxidation state increases from 0 to +1.Therefore, it is an oxidation reaction.

Oxidation state of arsenic increases in the above reaction.

3to0

Therefore, it is an oxidation reaction.

Expert Solution

 (c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:    

The balanced equation for the following half reaction has to be identified and also specify whether the reaction is an oxidation or reduction reaction.

(c) VO3-(g)  V2+(aq)                (in acid)

Concept introduction:

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 11. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 12. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 13. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 14. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 15. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 13. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 14. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 15. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 16. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 17. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
  6. 18. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

Answer to Problem 1PS

The balanced half cell reaction:

VO3-(aq)  +6H+(aq)+3eV2+(aq) + 3H2O (l)

It is a reduction reaction.

Explanation of Solution

The given reaction: VO3-(aq)  V2+(aq)

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction

    . VO3-(aq)  V2+(aq)

  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.

    VO3-(aq)  V2+(aq) + 3H2O (l)

  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.

    VO3-(aq)+6H+  V2+(aq) + 3H2O (l)

  4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.

    VO3-(aq)  +6H+(aq)+3eV2+(aq) + 3H2O (l)

  5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half  reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

               VO3-(aq)  +6H+(aq)+3eV2+(aq) + 3H2O (l)

Therefore, the balanced half cell reaction is as follows.

VO3-(aq)  +6H+(aq)+3eV2+(aq) + 3H2O (l)

Oxidation state of V in VO3-

VO3-x+3(-2)=-1x = -1+6x = +5

Oxidation state of chromium decreases in the above reaction.

+5to+2

Therefore, it is a reduction reaction.

Expert Solution

 (d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:    

The balanced equation for the following half reaction has to be identified and also specify whether the reaction is an oxidation or reduction reaction.

(d) Ag(s)      Ag2O(s)               (in base)

Concept introduction:

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 16. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 17. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 18. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 19. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 20. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 19. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 20. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 21. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 22. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 23. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
  6. 24. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

Answer to Problem 1PS

The balanced half cell reaction:

2Ag(s) + 2OH-(aq) Ag2O(s) + H2O(l) + 2e-

It is a oxidation reaction.

Explanation of Solution

The given reaction:

Ag(s)  Ag2O(s)

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.

    2Ag(s)  Ag2O(s)

  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.

    2Ag(s) + 2OH(aq)  Ag2O(s)+H2O(l)

  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.

    2Ag(s) + 2OH(aq)  Ag2O(s)+H2O(l)

  4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.

    2Ag(s) + OH(aq)  Ag2O(s)+H2O(l)+2e

  5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half  reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

    2Ag(s) + OH(aq)  Ag2O(s)+H2O(l)+2e

  6. 6. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

             2Ag(s) + OH(aq)  Ag2O(s)+H2O(l)+2e

Therefore, the balanced half reaction is as follows.

2Ag(s) + OH(aq)  Ag2O(s)+H2O(l)+2e

Oxidation state of silver decreases in the above reaction:

0to1

Therefore, it is an oxidation reaction.

Want to see more full solutions like this?

Subscribe now to access step-by-step solutions to millions of textbook problems written by subject matter experts!

Get Solutions

Want to see more full solutions like this?

Subscribe now to access step-by-step solutions to millions of textbook problems written by subject matter experts!

Get Solutions

Chapter 19 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
Show fewer chapter solutions
Ch. 19.1 - A common laboratory analysis for iron is to...Ch. 19.1 - Batteries based on the reduction of sulfur are...Ch. 19.2 - Describe how to set up a voltaic cell using the...Ch. 19.2 - The following overall chemical reaction occurs in...Ch. 19.4 - (a) Rank the following metals in their ability to...Ch. 19.5 - A voltaic cell is set up with an aluminum...Ch. 19.5 - The half-cells Ag+(aq. 1.0 M)|Ag(s) and H+(aq, ?...Ch. 19.6 - The following reaction has an E value of 0.76 V:...Ch. 19.6 - Calculate the equilibrium constant at 25 C for the...Ch. 19.7 - Predict the chemical reactions that will occur at...Ch. 19.8 - 1. Calculate the mass of O2 produced in the...Ch. 19.9 - A lithium ion battery produces a voltage of 3.6 V....Ch. 19.9 - Use the energy produced by the combustion of...Ch. 19.9 - What mass of lithium ion batteries would produce...Ch. 19.9 - If an electrically insulating material, such as...Ch. 19.9 - Use standard reduction potentials to determine...Ch. 19.9 - Use standard reduction potentials to determine...Ch. 19.9 - The overall reaction for the production of Cu(OH)2...Ch. 19.9 - Assume the following electrochemical cell...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the following...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the following...Ch. 19 - Balance the following redox equations. All occur...Ch. 19 - Balance the following redox equations. All occur...Ch. 19 - Balance the following redox equations. All occur...Ch. 19 - Balance the following redox equations. All occur...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell is constructed using the reaction...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell is constructed using the reaction...Ch. 19 - The half-cells Fe2+(aq) | Fe(s) and O2(g) | H2O...Ch. 19 - The half cells Sn2+(aq) |Sn(s) and Cl2(g) |Cl(aq)...Ch. 19 - For each of the following electrochemical cells,...Ch. 19 - For each of the following electrochemical cells,...Ch. 19 - Use cell notation to depict an electrochemical...Ch. 19 - Use cell notation to depict an electrochemical...Ch. 19 - What are the similarities and differences between...Ch. 19 - What reactions occur when a lead storage battery...Ch. 19 - Calculate the value of E for each of the following...Ch. 19 - Calculate the value of E for each of the following...Ch. 19 - Balance each of the following unbalanced...Ch. 19 - Balance each of the following unbalanced...Ch. 19 - Consider the following half-reactions: (a) Based...Ch. 19 - Consider the following half-reactions: (a)...Ch. 19 - Which of the following elements is the best...Ch. 19 - From the following list, identify those elements...Ch. 19 - Which of the following ions is most easily...Ch. 19 - From the following list, identify the ions that...Ch. 19 - (a) Which halogen is most easily reduced in acidic...Ch. 19 - (a) Which ion is most easily oxidized to the...Ch. 19 - Calculate the potential delivered by a voltaic...Ch. 19 - Calculate the potential developed by a voltaic...Ch. 19 - One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed...Ch. 19 - One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed...Ch. 19 - One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed...Ch. 19 - One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed...Ch. 19 - Calculate rG and the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 19 - Calculate rG and the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 19 - Use standard reduction potentials (Appendix M) for...Ch. 19 - Use the standard reduction potentials (Appendix M)...Ch. 19 - Use the standard reduction potentials (Appendix M)...Ch. 19 - Use the standard reduction potentials (Appendix M)...Ch. 19 - Diagram the apparatus used to electrolyze molten...Ch. 19 - Diagram the apparatus used to electrolyze aqueous...Ch. 19 - Which product, O2 or F2, is more likely to form at...Ch. 19 - Which product, Ca or H2, is more likely to form at...Ch. 19 - An aqueous solution of KBr is placed in a beaker...Ch. 19 - An aqueous solution of Na2S is placed in a beaker...Ch. 19 - In the electrolysis of a solution containing...Ch. 19 - In the electrolysis of a solution containing...Ch. 19 - Electrolysis of a solution of CuSO4(aq) to give...Ch. 19 - Electrolysis of a solution of Zn(NO3)2(aq) to give...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell can be built using the reaction...Ch. 19 - Assume the specifications of a Ni-Cd voltaic cell...Ch. 19 - Use E values to predict which of the following...Ch. 19 - Use E values to predict which of the following...Ch. 19 - In the presence of oxygen and water two...Ch. 19 - In the presence of oxygen and water two...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the following...Ch. 19 - Balance the following equations. (a) Zn(s) +...Ch. 19 - Magnesium metal is oxidized, and silver ions are...Ch. 19 - You want to set up a series of voltaic cells with...Ch. 19 - You want to set up a series of voltaic cells with...Ch. 19 - Which of the following reactions is (arc) product...Ch. 19 - In the table of standard reduction potentials,...Ch. 19 - In the table of standard reduction potentials,...Ch. 19 - Four voltaic cells are set up. In each, one...Ch. 19 - The following half-cells are available: (i)...Ch. 19 - The reaction occurring in the cell in which Al2O3...Ch. 19 - A cell is constructed using the following...Ch. 19 - A potential of 0.142 V is recorded (under standard...Ch. 19 - What is the value of E for the following...Ch. 19 - The standard potential, E, for the reaction of...Ch. 19 - An electrolysis cell for aluminum production...Ch. 19 - Electrolysis of molten NaCl is done in cells...Ch. 19 - A current of 0.0100 A is passed through a solution...Ch. 19 - A current of 0.44 A is passed through a solution...Ch. 19 - The total charge that ran he delivered by a large...Ch. 19 - Chlorine gas is obtained commercially by...Ch. 19 - Write equations for the half-reactions that occur...Ch. 19 - The products formed in the electrolysis of aqueous...Ch. 19 - Predict the products formed in the electrolysis of...Ch. 19 - In the electrolysis of HNO3(aq), hydrogen is...Ch. 19 - The metallurgy of aluminum involves electrolysis...Ch. 19 - Two half-cells, Pt | Fe3+(aq. 0.50 M), Fe2+(aq,...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell is set up utilizing the reaction...Ch. 19 - Calculate the cell potential for the following...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell set up utilizing the reaction Cu(s)...Ch. 19 - Two Ag+(aq) | Ag(s) half-cells are constructed....Ch. 19 - Calculate equilibrium constants for the following...Ch. 19 - Calculate equilibrium constants for the following...Ch. 19 - Use the table of standard reduction potentials...Ch. 19 - Use the table of standard reduction potentials...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for the following...Ch. 19 - Balance the following equations involving organic...Ch. 19 - A voltaic cell is constructed in which one...Ch. 19 - An expensive but lighter alternative to the lead...Ch. 19 - The specifications for a lead storage battery...Ch. 19 - Manganese may play an important role in chemical...Ch. 19 - You want to use electrolysis to plate a...Ch. 19 - Iron(II) ion undergoes a disproportionation...Ch. 19 - Copper(I) ion disproportionates to copper metal...Ch. 19 - The simplest way to write the reaction for...Ch. 19 - A lithium-ion camera battery is rated at 7500 mAh....Ch. 19 - Can either sodium or potassium metal be used as a...Ch. 19 - Galvanized steel pipes are used in the plumbing of...Ch. 19 - Consider an electrochemical cell based on the...Ch. 19 - An old method of measuring the current flowing in...Ch. 19 - A silver coulometer (Study Question 106) was used...Ch. 19 - Four metals, A, B, C, and D, exhibit the following...Ch. 19 - A solution of KI is added dropwise to a pale blue...Ch. 19 - The amount of oxygen, O2, dissolved in a water...Ch. 19 - Fluorinated organic compounds are used as...Ch. 19 - The free energy change for a reaction, rG, is the...Ch. 19 - A hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell operates on the simple...Ch. 19 - (a) Is it easier to reduce water in acid or base?...Ch. 19 - Living organisms derive energy from the oxidation...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions
Saturation refers to the ability of a fat to penetrate a barrier, such as paper. whether or not a fatty acid ch...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

9-43 Does a curie (Ci) measure radiation intensity or energy?

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry

What are sister chromatids?

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)

Must the ratio of guanine to cytosine be 1:1 in RNA? Explain.

Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry

A car traveling on a flat (unbanked), circular track accelerates uniformly from rest with a tangential accelera...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

What types of symbiosis exist?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin

What are Kirkwood gaps and what causes them?

Foundations of Astronomy (MindTap Course List)