   Chapter 19, Problem 21PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Consider the following half-reactions: (a) Based on E° values, which metal is the most easily oxidized? (b) Which metals on this list are capable of reducing Fe2+(aq) to Fe(s)? (c) Write a balanced chemical equation tor the reaction of Fe2+(aq) with Sn(s). Is this reaction product-favored or reactant-favored at equilibrium? (d) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Zn2+ (aq) with Sn(s). Is this reaction product-favored or react ant-favored at equilibrium?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Consider the following half reactions.

Half reactionEo(V)Cu2+(aq)+2e- Cu(s)Sn2+(aq)+2e- Sn(s)Fe2+(aq)+2e- Fe(s)Zn2+(aq)+2e- Zn(s)Al3+(aq)+3e- Al(s)+0.34-0.14-0.44-0.76-1.66

The most easily oxidized metal based on Eo values has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Electrochemical series:

It is a decreasing order of the reduction potentials. The most positive E0 are placed in the top in the electrochemical series, it has greater tendency for reduction and lower tendency of oxidation. And the most negative E0 values of elements are placed in the bottom of the series.

Explanation

The given table:

Half reactionEo(V)Cu2+(aq)+2e- Cu(s)Sn2+(aq)+2e- Sn(s)Fe2+(aq)+2e- Fe(s)Zn2+(aq)+2e-

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Consider the following half reactions.

Half reactionEo(V)Cu2+(aq)+2e- Cu(s)Sn2+(aq)+2e- Sn(s)Fe2+(aq)+2e- Fe(s)Zn2+(aq)+2e- Zn(s)Al3+(aq)+3e- Al(s)+0.34-0.14-0.44-0.76-1.66

The metals which are capable of reducing Fe2+(aq) to Fe(s) has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Electrochemical series:

It is a decreasing order of the reduction potentials. The most positive E0 are placed in the top in the electrochemical series, it has greater tendency for reduction and lower tendency of oxidation. And the most negative E0 values of elements are placed in the bottom of the series.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Consider the following half reactions.

Half reactionEo(V)Cu2+(aq)+2e- Cu(s)Sn2+(aq)+2e- Sn(s)Fe2+(aq)+2e- Fe(s)Zn2+(aq)+2e- Zn(s)Al3+(aq)+3e- Al(s)+0.34-0.14-0.44-0.76-1.66

The balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Fe2+(aq) with Sn (s) has to be identified and whether it is a product – favoured or reactant – favoured at equilibrium has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Electrochemical series:

It is a decreasing order of the reduction potentials. The most positive E0 are placed in the top in the electrochemical series, it has greater tendency for reduction and lower tendency of oxidation. And the most negative E0 values of elements are placed in the bottom of the series.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Consider the following half reactions.

Half reactionEo(V)Cu2+(aq)+2e- Cu(s)Sn2+(aq)+2e- Sn(s)Fe2+(aq)+2e- Fe(s)Zn2+(aq)+2e- Zn(s)Al3+(aq)+3e- Al(s)+0.34-0.14-0.44-0.76-1.66

The balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Zn2+(aq) with Sn (s) has to be identified and whether it is a product –favoured or reactant –favoured at equilibrium.

Concept introduction:

Electrochemical cells:

Therese are chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

In all electrochemical cells, oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode.

An anode is indicated by negative sign and cathode is indicated by the positive sign.

Electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

In the electrochemical cells two half cells are connected with salt bridge. It allows the cations and anions to move between the two half cells.

Under certain conditions a cell potential is measured it is called as standard potential (Ecello).

Standard potential (Ecello) can be calculated by the following formula.

Ecello=Ecathodeo-Eanodeo

The Ecello value is positive, the reaction is predicted to be product favoured at equilibrium.

The Ecello value is negative, the reaction is predicted to be reactant favoured at equilibrium.

Electrochemical series:

It is a decreasing order of the reduction potentials. The most positive E0 are placed in the top in the electrochemical series, it has greater tendency for reduction and lower tendency of oxidation. And the most negative E0 values of elements are placed in the bottom of the series.

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