   Chapter 19, Problem 105IL

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Consider an electrochemical cell based on the half-reactions Ni2+(aq) + 2 e− → Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq) + 2e− → Cd(s). (a) Diagram the cell, and label each of the components (including the anode, cathode, and salt bridge). (b) Use the equations for the half-reactions to write a balanced, net ionic equation for the overall cell reaction. (c) What is the polarity of each electrode? (d) What is the value of E°cell? (e) In which direction do electrons flow in the external circuit? (f) Assume that a salt bridge containing NaNO3 connects the two half-cells. In which direction do the Na+(aq) ions move? In which direction do the NO3− (aq) ions move? (g) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction. (h) If the concentration of Cd2+ is reduced to 0.010 M and [Ni2+] = 1.0 M, what is the value of Ecell? Is the net reaction still the reaction given in part (b)? (i) If 0.050 A is drawn from the battery, how long can it last if you begin with 1.0 L of each of the solutions and each was initially 1.0 M in dissolved species? Each electrode weighs 50.0 g in the beginning.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

The cell has to be drawn and label each of the component.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

Explanation

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To determine the following.

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

The balance equation has to be given.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

The polarity of each electrode has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

The Ecello has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

The direction in which electrons flow in the external circuit has to be given.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To determine the following.

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

Assume that a salt bride containing NaNO3 connect the two half cells. It has to be identified in which direction do Na+(aq) ions and NO3- (aq) move.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

(g)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

The equilibrium constant has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

(h)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

If the concentration of Cd2+(aq) is reduced to 0.010 M and [Ni2+]=1.0 M. The Ecello of the reaction has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

(i)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The half reactions are as follows.

Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) and Cd2+(aq)+2e- Cd(s)

The time the battery will last if 0.050 M is drawn from the battery has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

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