   Chapter 19, Problem 95GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

An expensive but lighter alternative to the lead storage battery is the silver-zinc battery.Ag2O(s) + Zn(s) + H2O(ℓ) → Zn(OH)2(s) + 2 Ag(s)The electrolyte is 40% KOH, and silver-silver oxide electrodes are separated from zinc-zinc hydroxide electrodes by a plastic sheet that is permeable to hydroxide ions. Under normal operating conditions, the battery has a potential of 1.59 V. (a) How much energy can be produced per gram of reactants in the silver-zinc battery? Assume the battery produces a current of 0.10 A. (b) How much energy can be produced per gram of reactants in the standard lead storage battery? Assume the battery produces a current of 0.10 A at 2.0 V. (c) Which battery (silver-zinc or lead storage) produces the greater energy per gram of reactants?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The energy produced per gram of reactants in the silver –zinc battery has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Electrolysis:

It is a decomposition of ionic compounds by passing electricity through molten compounds or aqueous solutions of compounds.

Electricity used to produce chemical changes. The apparatus used for electrolysis is called an electrolytic cell.

Current:

Rate of the charge changing in time.

The formula is as follows.

Current (Amperes, A) = Electric charge (Coloumbs, C)time, t(seconds,s)

Simplify as follows.

Current = Electric charge time

To rearrange the above formula is as follows.

Charge = Current(A) × time(s)

Explanation

The reactant for the reaction are Ag2O, Zn and H2O, if we assume one mole of each reactant we can sum their molecular masses to determine total grams of reactant.

Grams reactant = 231.74 Ag2O1 mol + 65.38 g Zn1 mol+18.02 g H2O1 mol= 315.14 g reactants.

Now, we have to determine amount of joules of energy can be produced by the battery. Therefore, the value is multiplying by voltage times faraday’s constant and the conversion factor of volts per coulomb to joules.

Energy (j) =1.59 V × 96500 C1 mol e-×1 J1 V C=1

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The energy produced per gram of reactants in the standard lead storage battery has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Electrolysis:

It is a decomposition of ionic compounds by passing electricity through molten compounds or aqueous solutions of compounds.

Electricity used to produce chemical changes. The apparatus used for electrolysis is called an electrolytic cell.

Current:

Rate of the charge changing in time is defined as current.

The formula is as follows.

Current (Amperes, A) = Electric charge (Coloumbs, C)time, t(seconds,s)

Simplify as follows.

Current = Electric charge time

To rearrange the above formula is as follows.

Charge = Current(A) × time(s)

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The battery which produces greater energy per gram of reactants has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

Electrolysis:

It is a decomposition of ionic compounds by passing electricity through molten compounds or aqueous solutions of compounds.

Electricity used to produce chemical changes. The apparatus used for electrolysis is called an electrolytic cell.

Current:

Rate of the charge changing in time is defined as current.

The formula is as follows.

Current (Amperes, A) = Electric charge (Coloumbs, C)time, t(seconds,s)

Simplify as follows.

Current = Electric charge time

To rearrange the above formula is as follows.

Charge = Current(A) × time(s)

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