   Chapter 19, Problem 90GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Use the table of standard reduction potentials (Appendix M) to calculate ΔrG° for the following reactions at 298 K. (a) ClO3−(aq) + 5 Cl−(aq) + 6 H+(aq) → 3 Cl2(g) + 3 H2O(ℓ) (b) AgCI(s) + Br−(aq) → AgBr(s) + Cl−(aq)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ΔrG0 for the following reaction has to be determined.

(a) ClO3-(aq) + 5Cl-(aq) + 6H+ (aq) 3Cl2(g) + 3H2O(l)

Concept introduction:

According to the first law of thermodynamics, the change in internal energy of a system is equal ti the heat added to the sysytem minus the work done by the system.

The equation is as follows.

ΔU = Q - WΔU = Change in internal energyQ = Heat added to the systemW=Work done by the system

In voltaic cell, the maximum cell potential is directly related to the free energy difference between the reactants and products in the cell.

ΔG0= -nFE0n = Number of moles transferred per mole of reactant and productsF = Faradayconstant=96485C/mol  E0= Volts = Work(J)/Charge(C)

The relation between standard cell potential and equilibrium constant is as follows.

lnK = nE00.0257 at 298K

Explanation

The given chemical reaction is as follows.

ClO3-(aq) + 5Cl-(aq) + 6H+ (aq) 3Cl2(g) + 3H2O(l)

First, we have to find the oxidized and reduced elements.

Oxidation state:

ClO3-x + 3(-2)= -1x = +5

Cl- and ClO3- are being oxidized into Cl2 and H2O.

Let’s write an each half cell reaction.

At anode:Oxiation : 5Cl(aq) + 5e  52Cl2(g)At cathode:Reduction : ClO3(aq) + 6H++5e-12Cl2(g) + 3H2O

Let’s calculate the Ecello of the reaction

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ΔrG0 for the following reactions has to be determined.

(b) AgCl(s) + Br-(aq) AgBr (s) + Cl-(aq).

Concept introduction:

According to the first law of thermodynamics, the change in internal energy of a system is equal ti the heat added to the sysytem minus the work done by the system.

The equation is as follows.

ΔU = Q - WΔU = Change in internal energyQ = Heat added to the systemW=Work done by the system

In voltaic cell, the maximum cell potential is directly related to the free energy difference between the reactants and products in the cell.

ΔG0= -nFE0n = Number of moles transferred per mole of reactant and productsF = Faradayconstant=96485C/mol  E0= Volts = Work(J)/Charge(C)

The relation between standard cell potential and equilibrium constant is as follows.

lnK = nE00.0257 at 298K

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