   Chapter 19, Problem 57GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Write balanced equations for the following half-reactions. (a) LIO2+(aq) → LI4+(aq)⇄(acid solution) (b) ClO3−(aq) → Cl−(aq)⇄(acid solution) (c) N2H4(aq) → N2(g)⇄(basic solution) (d) ClO−(aq) → Cl−(aq)⇄(basic solution)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following half reaction in acidic solution has to be identified.

(a)UO2+(aq) U4+(aq)

Concept introduction:

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
6. 6. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.
Explanation

Given reaction:

UO2+(aq) U4+(aq)

Steps for balancing half reactions in ACIDIC solution:

1. 1. Balance half reactions by mass

Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.

UO2+(aq) U4+(aq)

2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.

UO2+(aq) U4+(aq) + 2H2O(l)

3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following half reaction in acidic solution has to be identified.

(b)ClO3-(aq) Cl-(aq)

Concept introduction:

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

1. 6. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
2. 7. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
3. 8. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
4. 9. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
5. 10. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

1. 7. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
2. 8. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
3. 9. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
4. 10. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
5. 11. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
6. 12. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following half reaction in basic solution has to be identified.

(c)N2H4(aq) N2(g)

Concept introduction:

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

1. 11. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
2. 12. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
3. 13. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
4. 14. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
5. 15. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

1. 13. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
2. 14. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
3. 15. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
4. 16. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
5. 17. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
6. 18. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following half reaction in basic solution has to be identified.

(d)ClO-(aq) Cl-(aq)

Concept introduction:

Steps for balancing half –reactions in ACIDIC solution:

1. 16. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
2. 17. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
3. 18. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
4. 19. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
5. 20. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing half –reactions in BASIC solution:

1. 19. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
2. 20. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
3. 21. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
4. 22. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
5. 23. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
6. 24. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

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