   Chapter 18, Problem 5PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Predict whether each of the following processes results in an increase in entropy in the system. (Define reactants and products as the system.) (a) Water vapor condenses as dew (liquid water) 0 °C and 1 atm pressure. (b) An exothermic reaction of Al(s) and Br2(ℓ) forms Al2Br6(s). (c) The endothermic decomposition of solid CaCO3 at 800 °C to produce an equilibrium mixture containing solid CaCO3, solid CaO, and gaseous CO2. (d) One mol of AgCl(s) decomposes, forming 1.0 mole of Ag(s) and 0.5 mol Cl2(g).

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether the given process that is Water vapour condenses as liquid water at °C and 1 atm pressure results in increase in entropy of the system or not.

Concept introduction: The process is said to be spontaneous if the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. The increase in entropy results in a spontaneous process.

Reactions that involve increased number of moles in a gaseous system results in increased entropy of the system.

Explanation

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether the given process that is exothermic reaction of Al(s) and Br2(l) in formation of Al2Br6(s) results in increase in entropy of the system or not.

Concept introduction: The process is said to be spontaneous if the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. The increase in entropy results in a spontaneous process.

Reactions that involve increased number of moles in a gaseous system results in increased entropy of the system.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether the given process that is endothermic decomposition of solid CaCO3 results in increase in entropy of the system or not.

Concept introduction: The process is said to be spontaneous if the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. The increase in entropy results in a spontaneous process.

Reactions that involve increased number of moles in a gaseous system results in increased entropy of the system.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether the given process that is decomposition of one mole of AgCl(s) to form 1.0 mole of Ag(s) and 0.5 mol of Cl2(g) results in increase in entropy of the system or not.

Concept introduction: The process is said to be spontaneous if the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. The increase in entropy results in a spontaneous process.

Reactions that involve increased number of moles in a gaseous system results in increased entropy of the system.

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