   Chapter 18, Problem 6PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Predict whether each of the following processes results in an increase in entropy in the system. (Define reactants and products as the system.) (a) Water vapor condenses to liquid water at 90 °C and 1 atm pressure. (b) The exothermic reaction of Na(s) and Cl2(g) forms NaCl(s). (c) The endothermic reaction of H2 and I2 produces an equilibrium mixture of H2(g), I2(g), and HI(g). (d) Solid NaCl dissolves in water forming a saturated solution.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted whether the given process that is Water vapour condenses to liquid water at 90 °C and 1 atm pressure results in increase in entropy of the system or not.

Concept introduction: The process is said to be spontaneous if the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. The increase in entropy results in a spontaneous process.

Reactions that involve increased number of moles in a gaseous system results in increased entropy of the system.

Explanation

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted whether the given process that is exothermic reaction of Na(s) and Cl2(g) to form NaCl(s) results in increase in entropy of the system or not.

Concept introduction: The process is said to be spontaneous if the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. The increase in entropy results in a spontaneous process.

Reactions that involve increased number of moles in a gaseous system results in increased entropy of the system.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted whether the given process endothermic reaction of hydrogen and iodine to produce an equilibrium mixture of H2(g), I2(g) and HI(g) results in increase in entropy of the system or not.

Concept introduction: The process is said to be spontaneous if the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. The increase in entropy results in a spontaneous process.

Reactions that involve increased number of moles in a gaseous system results in increased entropy of the system.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted whether the given process that is dissolution of solid NaCl in water results in increase in entropy of the system or not.

Concept introduction: The process is said to be spontaneous if the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. The increase in entropy results in a spontaneous process.

Reactions that involve increased number of moles in a gaseous system results in increased entropy of the system.

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