BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Calculate ΔS°(system), ΔS°(surroundings), and ΔS°(universe) for each of the following processes at 298 K, and comment on how these systems differ.

  1. (a) HNO3(g) → HNO3(aq)
  2. (b) NaOH(s) → NaOH(aq)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The entropy change for the system, surroundings and universe for the given reaction should be calculated and commented how this system differs.

Concept introduction:

The universe consists of two parts, systems and surroundings. The entropy change for the universe is the sum of entropy change for the system and for surroundings.

  ΔSo(universe)= ΔSo(system)+ΔSo(surroundings)

The ΔSo(universe) should be greater than zero for a spontaneous process.

The  ΔSo(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔSo(system)rS°nS°(products)-nS°(reactants)

The ΔSo(surroundings) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔSo(surroundings)=rHoT

Here, ΔrHo is the enthalpy change for the reaction.

Explanation

The entropy change for the system, surroundings and universe for the given reaction is calculated below.

Given:

The Appendix L referred for the values of standard entropies and enthalpies.

The standard entropy of HNO3(g) is 266.38 J/Kmol.

The standard entropy of HNO3(aq) is 146.4 J/Kmol.

The standard enthalpy of HNO3(g) is 135.06 kJ/mol.

The standard enthalpy of HNO3(aq) is 207.36 kJ/mol.

The balanced chemical equation is:

  HNO3(g)HNO3(aq)

The  ΔSo(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

ΔSo(system)rS°nS°(products)-nS°(reactants)=[(1 mol HNO3(aq)/mol-rxn)S°[HNO3(aq)]-(1 mol HNO3(g)/mol-rxn)S°[HNO3(g)]]

Substituting the respective values

  ΔSo(system)=[(1 mol HNO3(aq)/mol-rxn)(146.4 J/K×mol)-(1 mol HNO3(g)/mol-rxn)(266.38 J/K×mol)]=-119.98 J/K×mol-rxn

The ΔrHo can be calculated by the following expression,

ΔrH°=fH°(products)fH°(reactants)=[(1 mol HNO3(aq)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[HNO3(aq)]-(1 mol HNO3(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[HNO3(g)]]

Substituting the respective values

ΔrH°=[(1 mol HNO3(aq)/mol-rxn)(-207

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The entropy change for the system, surroundings and universe for the given reaction should be calculated and commented how this system differs.

Concept introduction:

The universe consists of two parts, systems and surroundings. The entropy change for the universe is the sum of entropy change for the system and for surroundings.

  ΔSo(universe)= ΔSo(system)+ΔSo(surroundings)

The ΔSo(universe) should be greater than zero for a spontaneous process.

The  ΔSo(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔSo(system)rS°nS°(products)-nS°(reactants)

The ΔSo(surroundings) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔSo(surroundings)=rHoT

Here, ΔrHo is the enthalpy change for the reaction.

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 18 Solutions

Show all chapter solutions add

Additional Science Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts

Show solutions add

Distinguish between a measured number and an exact number. Give examples of each.

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

The following are complementary proteins: pot roast and chicken pot roast and carrots rice and French fries pea...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Name three carbohydrates that can be built using only glucose monomers.

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List)

What is the nucleolus, and what is its function?

Biology: The Dynamic Science (MindTap Course List)

What does the word apparent mean in apparent visual magnitude?

Horizons: Exploring the Universe (MindTap Course List)

Neurons are arrested in ________ of the cell cycle. a. G1 b. anaphase c. prophase d. S phase

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List)

Material with uniform resistivity is formed into a wedge as shown in Figure P26.50. Show that the resistance b...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)