BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Identify the following processes as either spontaneous or not spontaneous.

  1. (a) Ice melts when placed in a flask containing water at 5 °C.
  2. (b) Hydrogen iodide molecules decompose at 400 K to give a mixture of H2, I2 and HI.
  3. (c) Ethanol and water are mixed to form a solution.
  4. (d) Slightly soluble PbCl2 (Ksp = 1.7 × 10−5) dissolves in water to form a saturated solution.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that whether ice melts when placed in a flask containing water at 5oC is spontneous or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium. For the process to be spontaneous the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Explanation

The melting of ice produces a phase change from solid to liquid. Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas.  In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that whether decomposition of hydrogen iodide at 400K is spontneous or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium. For the process to be spontaneous the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that whether mixing ehtanol and water to form solution is spontaneous or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium. For the process to be spontaneous the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that whether slightly soluble PbCl2 dissolved in water at saturated solution is spontneous or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium. For the process to be spontaneous the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 18 Solutions

Show all chapter solutions add

Additional Science Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts

Show solutions add

Describe how protons and neutrons were discovered to be constituents of nuclei.

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Most people who successfully maintain weight loss do all of the following except continue to employ many of the...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)