   Chapter 18, Problem 8PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Indicate which of the following processes are reversible. (a) Nitrogen and oxygen gases diffuse to give a homogeneous mixture. (b) Ice sublimes at −5 °C and 1.0 atm. (c) Energy as heat is transferred to the surroundings from a mixture of ice and water at 0 °C, causing more ice to form. (d) Bromine evaporates and the gaseous molecules diffuse into the atmosphere.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether the given process is reversible or not.

Concept introduction: Reversible process are those process in which it is possible to return to the initial point, by the same path along which the change is carried out.

For a reversible process, the system should remain in equilibrium. However, spontaneous process involve non-equilibrium constants and are therefore irreversible.

For an irreversible process, the system can be brought to the initial point but there occurs a change in the surroundings.

Explanation

Nitrogen and oxygen combine to give oxides of nitrogen. They diffuse together to give a homogeneous mixture which cannot be separated on its own...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that wheter the given process is reversible or not.

Concept introduction: Reversible process are those process in which it is possible to return to the initial point, by the same path along which the change is carried out.

For a reversible process, the system should remain in equilibrium. However, spontaneous process involves non-equilibrium constants and is therefore irreversible.

For an irreversible process, the system can be brought to the initial point but there occurs a change in the surroundings.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that wheter the given process is reversible or not.

Concept introduction: Reversible process are those process in which it is possible to return to the initial point, by the same path along which the change is carried out.

For a reversible process, the system should remain in equilibrium. However, spontaneous process involves non-equilibrium constants and is therefore irreversible.

For an irreversible process, the system can be brought to the initial point but there occurs a change in the surroundings.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that wheter the given process is reversible or not.

Concept introduction: Reversible process are those process in which it is possible to return to the initial point, by the same path along which the change is carried out.

For a reversible process, the system should remain in equilibrium. However, spontaneous process involves non-equilibrium constants and is therefore irreversible.

For an irreversible process, the system can be brought to the initial point but there occurs a change in the surroundings.

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