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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Write balanced equations for the following reduction half-reactions involving organic compounds.

(a) HCO2H → CH2O    (acid solution)

(b) C6H5CO2H → C6H5CH5    (acid solution)

(c) CH3CH2CHO → CH3CH2CH2OH    (acid solution)

(d) CH3OH → CH4    (acid solution)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

A balanced equation for the following reaction has to be determined.

(a) HCO2 CH2O                           (acid solution)

Concept introduction:

Oxidation reaction:

The loss of electrons or the gain of oxigen atoms.And also increase their oxidation number.

Ag  Ag++ e-

In the above reaction , Ag atom lose one electron and change their oxidation state 0 to 1.

Reduction reaction:

Gaining electrons or adding hydrogen atoms. And also decrease their oxidation number.

Fe2++2e-  Fe

In the above reaction Fe2+ ion gaining 2 electrons and reduce their oxidation number +2 to 0.

Steps for balancing reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 4. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 5. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
  6. 6. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.
Explanation

The given reaction:

HCO2 CH2

Steps for balancing reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 1. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.

    HCO2 CH2

  2. 2. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.

    HCO2 CH2+H2O

  3. 3. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.

    HCO2H +2H+ CH2+H2O

  4. 4

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

A balanced equation for the following reaction has to be determined.

(b) C6H5CO2 C6H5CH3               (acid solution)

Concept introduction:

Oxidation reaction:

The loss of electrons or the gain of oxigen atoms.And also increase their oxidation number.

Ag  Ag++ e-

In the above reaction , Ag atom lose one electron and change their oxidation state 0 to 1.

Reduction reaction:

Gaining electrons or adding hydrogen atoms. And also decrease their oxidation number.

Fe2++2e-  Fe

In the above reaction Fe2+ ion gaining 2 electrons and reduce their oxidation number +2 to 0.

Steps for balancing reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 6. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 7. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 8. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 9. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 10. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 7. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 8. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 9. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 10. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 11. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
  6. 12. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

A balanced equation for the following reaction has to be determined.

(c) CH3CH2CHO CH3CH2CH2OH (acid solution)

Concept introduction:

Oxidation reaction:

The loss of electrons or the gain of oxigen atoms.And also increase their oxidation number.

Ag  Ag++ e-

In the above reaction , Ag atom lose one electron and change their oxidation state 0 to 1.

Reduction reaction:

Gaining electrons or adding hydrogen atoms. And also decrease their oxidation number.

Fe2++2e-  Fe

In the above reaction Fe2+ ion gaining 2 electrons and reduce their oxidation number +2 to 0.

Steps for balancing reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 11. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 12. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 13. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 14. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 15. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 13. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 14. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 15. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 16. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 17. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
  6. 18. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

A balanced equation for the following reaction has to be determined.

(d)CH3OH  CH4                              (acid solution)

Concept introduction:

Oxidation reaction:

The loss of electrons or the gain of oxigen atoms.And also increase their oxidation number.

Ag  Ag++ e-

In the above reaction , Ag atom lose one electron and change their oxidation state 0 to 1.

Reduction reaction:

Gaining electrons or adding hydrogen atoms. And also decrease their oxidation number.

Fe2++2e-  Fe

In the above reaction Fe2+ ion gaining 2 electrons and reduce their oxidation number +2 to 0.

Steps for balancing reactions in ACIDIC solution:

  1. 16. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 17. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 18. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 19. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 20. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.

Steps for balancing reactions in BASIC solution:

  1. 19. Balance all atoms except H and O in half reaction.
  2. 20. Balance O atoms by adding water to the side missing O atoms.
  3. 21. Balance the H atoms by adding H+ to the side missing H atoms.
  4. 22. Balance the charge by adding electrons to side with more total positive charge.
  5. 23. Make the number of electrons the same in both half reactions by multiplication, while avoiding fractional number of electrons.
  6. 24. Add the same number of OH- groups as there are H+ present to both sides of the equation.

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Sect-19.8 P-19.11CYUSect-19.9 P-1.1ACPSect-19.9 P-1.2ACPSect-19.9 P-1.3ACPSect-19.9 P-2.1ACPSect-19.9 P-2.2ACPSect-19.9 P-2.3ACPSect-19.9 P-2.4ACPSect-19.9 P-2.5ACPCh-19 P-1PSCh-19 P-2PSCh-19 P-3PSCh-19 P-4PSCh-19 P-5PSCh-19 P-6PSCh-19 P-7PSCh-19 P-8PSCh-19 P-9PSCh-19 P-10PSCh-19 P-11PSCh-19 P-12PSCh-19 P-13PSCh-19 P-14PSCh-19 P-15PSCh-19 P-16PSCh-19 P-17PSCh-19 P-18PSCh-19 P-19PSCh-19 P-20PSCh-19 P-21PSCh-19 P-22PSCh-19 P-23PSCh-19 P-24PSCh-19 P-25PSCh-19 P-26PSCh-19 P-27PSCh-19 P-28PSCh-19 P-29PSCh-19 P-30PSCh-19 P-31PSCh-19 P-32PSCh-19 P-33PSCh-19 P-34PSCh-19 P-35PSCh-19 P-36PSCh-19 P-37PSCh-19 P-38PSCh-19 P-39PSCh-19 P-40PSCh-19 P-41PSCh-19 P-42PSCh-19 P-43PSCh-19 P-44PSCh-19 P-45PSCh-19 P-46PSCh-19 P-47PSCh-19 P-48PSCh-19 P-49PSCh-19 P-50PSCh-19 P-51PSCh-19 P-52PSCh-19 P-53PSCh-19 P-54PSCh-19 P-55PSCh-19 P-56PSCh-19 P-57GQCh-19 P-58GQCh-19 P-59GQCh-19 P-60GQCh-19 P-61GQCh-19 P-62GQCh-19 P-63GQCh-19 P-64GQCh-19 P-65GQCh-19 P-66GQCh-19 P-67GQCh-19 P-68GQCh-19 P-69GQCh-19 P-70GQCh-19 P-71GQCh-19 P-72GQCh-19 P-73GQCh-19 P-74GQCh-19 P-75GQCh-19 P-76GQCh-19 P-77GQCh-19 P-78GQCh-19 P-79GQCh-19 P-80GQCh-19 P-81GQCh-19 P-82GQCh-19 P-83GQCh-19 P-84GQCh-19 P-85GQCh-19 P-86GQCh-19 P-87GQCh-19 P-88GQCh-19 P-89GQCh-19 P-90GQCh-19 P-91GQCh-19 P-92GQCh-19 P-93GQCh-19 P-94GQCh-19 P-95GQCh-19 P-96GQCh-19 P-97GQCh-19 P-98GQCh-19 P-99GQCh-19 P-100GQCh-19 P-101GQCh-19 P-102GQCh-19 P-103GQCh-19 P-104GQCh-19 P-105ILCh-19 P-106ILCh-19 P-107ILCh-19 P-108ILCh-19 P-109ILCh-19 P-110ILCh-19 P-111SCQCh-19 P-112SCQCh-19 P-113SCQCh-19 P-114SCQCh-19 P-115SCQ

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