   Chapter 19, Problem 98GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

You want to use electrolysis to plate a cylindrical object (radius = 2.50 and length = 20.00 cm) with a coating of nickel metal, 4.0 mm thick.You place the object in a bath containing a salt (Na2SO4). One electrode is impure nickel, and the other is the object to be plated. The electrolyzing potential is 2.50 V. (a) Which is the anode and which is the cathode in the experiment? What half-reaction occurs at each electrode? (b) Calculate the number of kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy required to carry out the electrolysis. (1 kWh = 3.6 × 106 J and 1 J = 1 C × 1 V)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The anode and the cathode in the experiment and the half reactions occurs at each electrode has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

Explanation

If you plating Ni onto the cylinder,  Ni2+ in solution is being reduced to Ni.

Therefore, cylinder is the cathode.

To have Ni2+ in solution plate, it must be coming from the impure Ni electrode. Ni is being oxidized to Ni2+ at this electrode , therefore, impure Ni is the electrode

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The number of kilowatt –hours (kWh) of energy required to carry out the electrolysis has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Voltaic cell or Galvanic cell:

The device to produce electricity by using chemical reactions. In these divces are redox chemical reactions are occured.

A voltaic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It consists of two half cells. Each half cell consists of a metal and a solution of a salt of metal. Two half cells are connected by salt bridge.

The chemical reaction in the half cell is an oxidation reduction (redox)reactions.

For example:

Cell diagram of voltaic or galvanic cell is as follows.

Salt bridge                        Cu(s)|Cu2+(aq)  ||  Ag+(aq)|Ag(s)____________     ___________                                       Half cell             Half cell

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