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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

An aqueous solution contains 3.00% phenylalanine (C9H11NO2) by mass. (Phenylalanine is non-ionic and nonvolatile.) Find the following:

  1. (a) the freezing point of the solution
  2. (b) the boiling point of the solution
  3. (c) the osmotic pressure of the solution at 25 °C

In your view, which of these values is most easily measurable in the laboratory?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The freezing point of the given solution has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the freezing point
  • Osmotic pressure

Change in freezing point is calculated by using the equation,

  ΔTfp=Kfpmsolute

  where,

  Kfp is the molal freezing point elevation constant.

Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one kilogram of solvent.

  Molality (m) =Numberofmolesofsolute1kgofsolvent

Explanation

Given,

Mass of phenylalanine is 3%=3100×100g=3g

Mass of solvent is 100g3g=97g=0.097kg

Molar mass of phenylalanine is 165.19g/mol

Molal freezing point elevation constant of water is 1.860Cm1

  Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass=3gphenylalanine165.19g/mol=0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The boiling point of the given solution has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the freezing point
  • Osmotic pressure

Change in boiling point is calculated by using the equation,

  ΔTbp=Kbpmsolute

  where,

  Kbp is the molal boiling point elevation constant.

Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one kilogram of solvent.

  Molality (m) =Numberofmolesofsolute1kgofsolvent

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The osmotic pressure of the given solution has to be determined. The values that are easily measureable in laboratory have to be identified among these values.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the freezing point
  • Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is calculated by using the equation,

  π=cRT

  where,

  c is the molar concentration.

Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one kilogram of solvent.

  Molality (m) =Numberofmolesofsolute1kgofsolvent

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