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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

List the following aqueous solutions in order of increasing melting point. (The last three are all assumed to dissociate completely into ions in water.)

  1. (a) 0.1 m sugar
  2. (b) 0.1 m NaCl
  3. (c) 0.08 m CaCl2
  4. (d) 0.04 m Na2SO4

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The increasing order of melting point from the given aqueous solution has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the freezing point
  • Osmotic pressure

Freezing point depression: The freezing point of the solution varies with the solute concentration.

Freezing point depression = ΔTfp= Kfp. msolute.i,where,Kfp=molal freezing point depression constant,msolute= molality of solute,i=van'tHofffactor.

Decline in the freezing point is huge when solute is an electrolyte than when solute is nonelectrolyte.

van’t Hoff factor, i: it is the ration between change in in freezing point measured and change in in freezing point calculated. It indicates the total number of ions that are produced.

Melting point of a solution increases with the increase in concentration of the solute in solution.

Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one kilogram of solvent.

  Molality (m) =Numberofmolesofsolute1kgofsolvent

Explanation

Colligative properties are the properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it.

Melting point of a solution increases with the increase in concentration of the solute in solution.

  • Sugar is a non-electrolyte and hence i=1
  • NaCl is completely dissolved and produces 2 ions and hence i=2. So total concentration is 0.2m
  • CaCl2 is completely dissolved and produces 3 ions and hence i=3. So total concentration is 0.24m
  • Na2SO4 is completely dissolved and produces 3 ions and hence i=3. So total concentration is 0

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