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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Account for the fact that alcohols such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH) are quite miscible with water, whereas an alcohol with a long-carbon chain, such as octanol (C8H17OH), is poorly soluble in water.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation The reasons why methanol and ethanol are soluble in water whereas octanol is poorly soluble have to be determined.

Concept introduction:

‘Like dissolves like’ principle said that polar compounds including ionic compound should be more soluble in polar solvent. Likewise, non-polar compound should be more soluble in non-polar solvent. Other hand, compounds with similar intermolecular force capability to soluble in one another because solute-solvent interactions are similar signification to the solute-solute interaction.

The set of repulsive and attractive force between molecules that result from the polarity between neighboring molecules is represented as intermolecular force. There are four types of intermolecular forces:

  • Hydrogen bonding
  • London dispersion force
  • Ion – dipole force
  • Dipole – Dipole force

Hydrogen bond: Hydrogen is bonded to strong electronegative atom like oxygen, nitrogen etc.

Explanation

Methanol and ethanol has a bent geometry around the oxygen atom due to the presence of lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atom and thus it is not symmetrical. Therefore it possesses a net dipole moment making it a polar compound. Methanol and ethanol has strong electronegative atom which is oxygen. These strongly electronegative elements make bond with hydrogen forming hydrogen bond...

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