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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Once you have separated the three salts in Study Question 111 into three test tubes, you now need to confirm their presence.

  1. (a) For Pb2+ ion, one way to do this is to treat a precipitate of PbCl2 with K2CrO4 to produce the bright yellow insoluble solid, PbCrO4. Using Ksp values, confirm that the chloride salt should be converted to the chromate salt.
  2. (b) Suggest a method for confirming the presence of Ag+ and Cu2+ ions using complex ions.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The chloride salt of lead is converted to its chromate salt to test its presence, the reason has to be confirmed.

Concept introduction: Metal ions present in a solution can be identified by a set procedure known as qualitative analysis. Different metal ions show different reactions with different reagent and thus either through the color of the precipitate formed or by smell the gas evolved the metal ion present can be identified.

Some metal ions when present in an aqueous solution containing anions or neutral species called Lewis base or ligands having a tendency to donate electron pairs to metal ions then complex ion formation will take place. Complex ions are stable and thus formation of these increase the solubility of the salt containing the metal ions same as in complex ions.

Example of metal ions that form complex ions includes Ag+,Cd2+,Fe2+,Zn2+,Ni2+ etc.

Example of Lewis bases includes,NH3,OH etc.

Explanation

Refer to the Appendix J for the value of Ksp.

The Ksp value for PbCl2 is 1.7×105.

The Ksp value for PbCrO4 is 2.8×1013.

Higher the value of Ksp more soluble will be the salt. The Ksp value for PbCl2  is very high this implies that it will dissolve if warmed slightly. Therefore in order to check the presence of Pb2+ the chloride salt of lead should be first converted to its chromate salt by adding K2CrO4  to the solution. The Ksp value of PbCrO4 is very small hence sufficient amount of insoluble yellow precipitate of PbCrO4 form to confirm the presence of lead ions in the solution

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The presence of Ag+ and Cu2+ ions in the solution has to be confirmed using complex ion  method.

Concept introduction: Metal ions present in a solution can be identified by a set procedure known as qualitative analysis. Different metal ions show different reactions with different reagent and thus either through the color of the precipitate formed or by smell the gas evolved the metal ion present can be identified.

Some metal ions when present in an aqueous solution containing anions or neutral species called Lewis base or ligands having a tendency to donate electron pairs to metal ions then complex ion formation will take place. Complex ions are stable and thus formation of these increase the solubility of the salt containing the metal ions same as in complex ions.

Example of metal ions that form complex ions includes Ag+,Cd2+,Fe2+,Zn2+,Ni2+ etc.

Example of Lewis bases includes,NH3,OH etc.

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Chapter 17 Solutions

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Sect-17.4 P-17.11CYUSect-17.5 P-17.12CYUSect-17.5 P-17.13CYUSect-17.5 P-17.14CYUSect-17.6 P-17.15CYUSect-17.6 P-17.16CYUSect-17.6 P-1.1ACPSect-17.6 P-1.2ACPSect-17.6 P-1.3ACPSect-17.6 P-1.4ACPSect-17.6 P-1.5ACPSect-17.6 P-2.1ACPSect-17.6 P-2.2ACPCh-17 P-1PSCh-17 P-2PSCh-17 P-3PSCh-17 P-4PSCh-17 P-5PSCh-17 P-6PSCh-17 P-7PSCh-17 P-8PSCh-17 P-9PSCh-17 P-10PSCh-17 P-11PSCh-17 P-12PSCh-17 P-13PSCh-17 P-14PSCh-17 P-15PSCh-17 P-16PSCh-17 P-17PSCh-17 P-18PSCh-17 P-19PSCh-17 P-20PSCh-17 P-21PSCh-17 P-22PSCh-17 P-23PSCh-17 P-24PSCh-17 P-25PSCh-17 P-26PSCh-17 P-27PSCh-17 P-28PSCh-17 P-29PSCh-17 P-30PSCh-17 P-31PSCh-17 P-32PSCh-17 P-33PSCh-17 P-35PSCh-17 P-36PSCh-17 P-37PSCh-17 P-38PSCh-17 P-39PSCh-17 P-40PSCh-17 P-41PSCh-17 P-42PSCh-17 P-43PSCh-17 P-44PSCh-17 P-45PSCh-17 P-46PSCh-17 P-47PSCh-17 P-48PSCh-17 P-49PSCh-17 P-50PSCh-17 P-51PSCh-17 P-52PSCh-17 P-53PSCh-17 P-54PSCh-17 P-55PSCh-17 P-56PSCh-17 P-57PSCh-17 P-58PSCh-17 P-59PSCh-17 P-60PSCh-17 P-61PSCh-17 P-62PSCh-17 P-63PSCh-17 P-64PSCh-17 P-65PSCh-17 P-66PSCh-17 P-67PSCh-17 P-68PSCh-17 P-69PSCh-17 P-70PSCh-17 P-71PSCh-17 P-72PSCh-17 P-73PSCh-17 P-74PSCh-17 P-75PSCh-17 P-76PSCh-17 P-77GQCh-17 P-78GQCh-17 P-79GQCh-17 P-80GQCh-17 P-81GQCh-17 P-82GQCh-17 P-83GQCh-17 P-84GQCh-17 P-85GQCh-17 P-86GQCh-17 P-87GQCh-17 P-88GQCh-17 P-89GQCh-17 P-90GQCh-17 P-91GQCh-17 P-92GQCh-17 P-93GQCh-17 P-94GQCh-17 P-95GQCh-17 P-96GQCh-17 P-97GQCh-17 P-98GQCh-17 P-99GQCh-17 P-100GQCh-17 P-101ILCh-17 P-102ILCh-17 P-103ILCh-17 P-104ILCh-17 P-105ILCh-17 P-106ILCh-17 P-107ILCh-17 P-108ILCh-17 P-109ILCh-17 P-110ILCh-17 P-111ILCh-17 P-112ILCh-17 P-113SCQCh-17 P-114SCQCh-17 P-115SCQCh-17 P-116SCQCh-17 P-117SCQCh-17 P-118SCQCh-17 P-119SCQCh-17 P-120SCQ

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