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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

For the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.150 M ethylamine. C2H5NH2, with 0.100 M HCl, find the pH at each of the following points, and then use that information to sketch the titration curve and decide on an appropriate indicator.

  1. (a) At the beginning, before HCl is added
  2. (b) At the halfway point in the titration
  3. (c) When 75% of the required acid has been added
  4. (d) At the equivalence point
  5. (e) When 10.0 mL more HCl has been added than is required
  6. (f) Sketch the titration curve.
  7. (g) Suggest an appropriate indicator for this titration.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The value of pH for the original solution of C2H5NH2 has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Titration is a quantitative method to determine the quantity of an acid or base in a solution. This method is used to determine the concentration an acid in the solution by titrating it against a base.

For strong acid-weak base titration the pH value can be calculated at various points before and after equivalence point. The equilibrium established during the titration of C2H5NH2 with HCl is represented as,

C2H5NH2(aq)+ H3O+(aq)H2O(l)+C2H5NH3+(aq)

Calculation of pH at various points is done as follows,

(1) The pOH value before the titration can be calculated by using Kb and its relation with OH ion concentration.

Kb=[OH](eq)[BH+](eq)[B](eq) (1)

(2) The pH calculation just before the equivalence point,

As the addition of HCl is done there will be formation of buffer solution C2H5NH2/C2H5NH3+. The pOH calculation for buffer solution is done by using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base] (2)

At the midpoint of the titration, concentration of base and its conjugate acid is equal. Therefore pOH value at midpoint will be given as

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base]

Substitute, [conjugateacid]for[base].

pOH=pKb+log[base][base]=pKb+log(1)=pKb+0=pKb

Therefore, pOH value at midpoint is equal to pKb.

(3) The pOH calculation the equivalence point.

At equivalence point all the acid will be neutralized, and there will be only C2H5NH3+. The H3O+ will be produced due to the hydrolysis of conjugate acid at equivalence point. The hydrolysis equilibrium is represented as,

C2H5NH3+(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+C2H5NH2(aq)

By using the value of Ka for the ethylamine, concentration of  H3O+ can be calculated.

Value of pH at every point is calculated by using the relation between pH and pOH.

pH=14pOH

The relation between Ka and Kb for weak acid and its conjugate base is given as,

Kw=(Ka)(Kb) (3)

Explanation

The pOH value before the titration can be calculated by using Kb and its relation with H3O+ ion concentration.

Kb=[OH](eq)[BH+](eq)[B](eq)

Given:

Refer to the Apendix I in the textbook for the value of Kb.

The value of Kb for ethylamine is 4.3×104.

The value of Kw for water is 1.0×1014.

The pKb value is calculated as follows;

pKb=log(Kb)

Substitute, 4.3×104 for Kb.

pKa=log(4.3×104)=3.36

Therefore, pKb value of ethylamine is 3.36.

The initial concentration of C2H5NH2 is 0.150 M.

The initial concentration of HCl is 0.100 M.

Volume of the solvent is 50 mL.

Therefore volume of the solvent is 0.050 L.

ICE table (1) gives the dissociation of C2H5NH2.

EquationC2H5NH2(aq)+H2O(l)OH(aq)+C2H5NH3+(aq)Initial(molL1)0.15000Change(molL1)x+x+xAfterreaction(molL1)0.150x+x+x

From ICE table (1),

Concentration of C2H5NH2 left after reaction is (0

 (b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The value of pH at midpoint of the titration has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Titration is a quantitative method to determine the quantity of an acid or base in a solution. This method is used to determine the concentration an acid in the solution by titrating it against a base.

For strong acid-weak base titration the pH value can be calculated at various points before and after equivalence point. The equilibrium established during the titration of C2H5NH2 with HCl is represented as,

C2H5NH2(aq)+ H3O+(aq)H2O(l)+C2H5NH3+(aq)

Calculation of pH at various points is done as follows,

(1) The pOH value before the titration can be calculated by using Kb and its relation with OH ion concentration.

Kb=[OH](eq)[BH+](eq)[B](eq) (1)

(2) The pH calculation just before the equivalence point,

As the addition of HCl is done there will be formation of buffer solution C2H5NH2/C2H5NH3+. The pOH calculation for buffer solution is done by using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base] (2)

At the midpoint of the titration, concentration of base and its conjugate acid is equal. Therefore pOH value at midpoint will be given as

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base]

Substitute, [conjugateacid]for[base].

pOH=pKb+log[base][base]=pKb+log(1)=pKb+0=pKb

Therefore, pOH value at midpoint is equal to pKb.

(3) The pOH calculation the equivalence point.

At equivalence point all the acid will be neutralized, and there will be only C2H5NH3+. The H3O+ will be produced due to the hydrolysis of conjugate acid at equivalence point. The hydrolysis equilibrium is represented as,

C2H5NH3+(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+C2H5NH2(aq)

By using the value of Ka for the ethylamine, concentration of  H3O+ can be calculated.

Value of pH at every point is calculated by using the relation between pH and pOH.

pH=14pOH

The relation between Ka and Kb for weak acid and its conjugate base is given as,

Kw=(Ka)(Kb) (3)

 (c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The value of pH when 75 % volume of the HCl added to ethylamine solution has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Titration is a quantitative method to determine the quantity of an acid or base in a solution. This method is used to determine the concentration an acid in the solution by titrating it against a base.

For strong acid-weak base titration the pH value can be calculated at various points before and after equivalence point. The equilibrium established during the titration of C2H5NH2 with HCl is represented as,

C2H5NH2(aq)+ H3O+(aq)H2O(l)+C2H5NH3+(aq)

Calculation of pH at various points is done as follows,

(1) The pOH value before the titration can be calculated by using Kb and its relation with OH ion concentration.

Kb=[OH](eq)[BH+](eq)[B](eq) (1)

(2) The pH calculation just before the equivalence point,

As the addition of HCl is done there will be formation of buffer solution C2H5NH2/C2H5NH3+. The pOH calculation for buffer solution is done by using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base] (2)

At the midpoint of the titration, concentration of base and its conjugate acid is equal. Therefore pOH value at midpoint will be given as

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base]

Substitute, [conjugateacid]for[base].

pOH=pKb+log[base][base]=pKb+log(1)=pKb+0=pKb

Therefore, pOH value at midpoint is equal to pKb.

(3) The pOH calculation the equivalence point.

At equivalence point all the acid will be neutralized, and there will be only C2H5NH3+. The H3O+ will be produced due to the hydrolysis of conjugate acid at equivalence point. The hydrolysis equilibrium is represented as,

C2H5NH3+(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+C2H5NH2(aq)

By using the value of Ka for the ethylamine, concentration of  H3O+ can be calculated.

Value of pH at every point is calculated by using the relation between pH and pOH.

pH=14pOH

The relation between Ka and Kb for weak acid and its conjugate base is given as,

Kw=(Ka)(Kb) (3)

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The value of pH at equivalence point has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Titration is a quantitative method to determine the quantity of an acid or base in a solution. This method is used to determine the concentration an acid in the solution by titrating it against a base.

For strong acid-weak base titration the pH value can be calculated at various points before and after equivalence point. The equilibrium established during the titration of C2H5NH2 with HCl is represented as,

C2H5NH2(aq)+ H3O+(aq)H2O(l)+C2H5NH3+(aq)

Calculation of pH at various points is done as follows,

(1) The pOH value before the titration can be calculated by using Kb and its relation with OH ion concentration.

Kb=[OH](eq)[BH+](eq)[B](eq) (1)

(2) The pH calculation just before the equivalence point,

As the addition of HCl is done there will be formation of buffer solution C2H5NH2/C2H5NH3+. The pOH calculation for buffer solution is done by using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base] (2)

At the midpoint of the titration, concentration of base and its conjugate acid is equal. Therefore pOH value at midpoint will be given as

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base]

Substitute, [conjugateacid]for[base].

pOH=pKb+log[base][base]=pKb+log(1)=pKb+0=pKb

Therefore, pOH value at midpoint is equal to pKb.

(3) The pOH calculation the equivalence point.

At equivalence point all the acid will be neutralized, and there will be only C2H5NH3+. The H3O+ will be produced due to the hydrolysis of conjugate acid at equivalence point. The hydrolysis equilibrium is represented as,

C2H5NH3+(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+C2H5NH2(aq)

By using the value of Ka for the ethylamine, concentration of  H3O+ can be calculated.

Value of pH at every point is calculated by using the relation between pH and pOH.

pH=14pOH

The relation between Ka and Kb for weak acid and its conjugate base is given as,

Kw=(Ka)(Kb) (3)

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The value of pH when 10 mL HCl is added after equivalence point has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Titration is a quantitative method to determine the quantity of an acid or base in a solution. This method is used to determine the concentration an acid in the solution by titrating it against a base.

For strong acid-weak base titration the pH value can be calculated at various points before and after equivalence point. The equilibrium established during the titration of C2H5NH2 with HCl is represented as,

C2H5NH2(aq)+ H3O+(aq)H2O(l)+C2H5NH3+(aq)

Calculation of pH at various points is done as follows,

(1) The pOH value before the titration can be calculated by using Kb and its relation with OH ion concentration.

Kb=[OH](eq)[BH+](eq)[B](eq) (1)

(2) The pH calculation just before the equivalence point,

As the addition of HCl is done there will be formation of buffer solution C2H5NH2/C2H5NH3+. The pOH calculation for buffer solution is done by using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base] (2)

At the midpoint of the titration, concentration of base and its conjugate acid is equal. Therefore pOH value at midpoint will be given as

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base]

Substitute, [conjugateacid]for[base].

pOH=pKb+log[base][base]=pKb+log(1)=pKb+0=pKb

Therefore, pOH value at midpoint is equal to pKb.

(3) The pOH calculation the equivalence point.

At equivalence point all the acid will be neutralized, and there will be only C2H5NH3+. The H3O+ will be produced due to the hydrolysis of conjugate acid at equivalence point. The hydrolysis equilibrium is represented as,

C2H5NH3+(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+C2H5NH2(aq)

By using the value of Ka for the ethylamine, concentration of  H3O+ can be calculated.

Value of pH at every point is calculated by using the relation between pH and pOH.

pH=14pOH

The relation between Ka and Kb for weak acid and its conjugate base is given as,

Kw=(Ka)(Kb) (3)

 (f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

 Titration curve has to be plotted.

Concept introduction:

Titration is a quantitative method to determine the quantity of an acid or base in a solution. This method is used to determine the concentration an acid in the solution by titrating it against a base.

For strong acid-weak base titration the pH value can be calculated at various points before and after equivalence point. The equilibrium established during the titration of C2H5NH2 with HCl is represented as,

C2H5NH2(aq)+ H3O+(aq)H2O(l)+C2H5NH3+(aq)

Calculation of pH at various points is done as follows,

(1) The pOH value before the titration can be calculated by using Kb and its relation with OH ion concentration.

Kb=[OH](eq)[BH+](eq)[B](eq) (1)

(2) The pH calculation just before the equivalence point,

As the addition of HCl is done there will be formation of buffer solution C2H5NH2/C2H5NH3+. The pOH calculation for buffer solution is done by using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base] (2)

At the midpoint of the titration, concentration of base and its conjugate acid is equal. Therefore pOH value at midpoint will be given as

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base]

Substitute, [conjugateacid]for[base].

pOH=pKb+log[base][base]=pKb+log(1)=pKb+0=pKb

Therefore, pOH value at midpoint is equal to pKb.

(3) The pOH calculation the equivalence point.

At equivalence point all the acid will be neutralized, and there will be only C2H5NH3+. The H3O+ will be produced due to the hydrolysis of conjugate acid at equivalence point. The hydrolysis equilibrium is represented as,

C2H5NH3+(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+C2H5NH2(aq)

By using the value of Ka for the ethylamine, concentration of  H3O+ can be calculated.

Value of pH at every point is calculated by using the relation between pH and pOH.

pH=14pOH

The relation between Ka and Kb for weak acid and its conjugate base is given as,

Kw=(Ka)(Kb) (3)

(g)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

A best indicator that can be used to detect the equivalence point has to be chosen.

Concept introduction:

Titration is a quantitative method to determine the quantity of an acid or base in a solution. This method is used to determine the concentration an acid in the solution by titrating it against a base.

For strong acid-weak base titration the pH value can be calculated at various points before and after equivalence point. The equilibrium established during the titration of C2H5NH2 with HCl is represented as,

C2H5NH2(aq)+ H3O+(aq)H2O(l)+C2H5NH3+(aq)

Calculation of pH at various points is done as follows,

(1) The pOH value before the titration can be calculated by using Kb and its relation with OH ion concentration.

Kb=[OH](eq)[BH+](eq)[B](eq) (1)

(2) The pH calculation just before the equivalence point,

As the addition of HCl is done there will be formation of buffer solution C2H5NH2/C2H5NH3+. The pOH calculation for buffer solution is done by using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base] (2)

At the midpoint of the titration, when concentration of base and its conjugate acid is equal. Therefore pOH value at midpoint will be given as

pOH=pKb+log[conjugate acid][base]

Substitute, [conjugateacid]for[base].

pOH=pKb+log[base][base]=pKb+log(1)=pKb+0=pKb

Therefore, pOH value at midpoint is equal to pKb.

(3) The pOH calculation the equivalence point.

At equivalence point all the acid will be neutralized, and there will be only C2H5NH3+. The H3O+ will be produced due to the hydrolysis of conjugate acid at equivalence point. The hydrolysis equilibrium is represented as,

C2H5NH3+(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+C2H5NH2(aq)

By using the value of Ka for the ethylamine, concentration of  H3O+ can be calculated.

Value of pH at every point is calculated by using the relation between pH and pOH.

pH=14pOH

The relation between Ka and Kb for weak acid and its conjugate base is given as,

Kw=(Ka)(Kb) (3)

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Chapter 17 Solutions

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Sect-17.4 P-17.11CYUSect-17.5 P-17.12CYUSect-17.5 P-17.13CYUSect-17.5 P-17.14CYUSect-17.6 P-17.15CYUSect-17.6 P-17.16CYUSect-17.6 P-1.1ACPSect-17.6 P-1.2ACPSect-17.6 P-1.3ACPSect-17.6 P-1.4ACPSect-17.6 P-1.5ACPSect-17.6 P-2.1ACPSect-17.6 P-2.2ACPCh-17 P-1PSCh-17 P-2PSCh-17 P-3PSCh-17 P-4PSCh-17 P-5PSCh-17 P-6PSCh-17 P-7PSCh-17 P-8PSCh-17 P-9PSCh-17 P-10PSCh-17 P-11PSCh-17 P-12PSCh-17 P-13PSCh-17 P-14PSCh-17 P-15PSCh-17 P-16PSCh-17 P-17PSCh-17 P-18PSCh-17 P-19PSCh-17 P-20PSCh-17 P-21PSCh-17 P-22PSCh-17 P-23PSCh-17 P-24PSCh-17 P-25PSCh-17 P-26PSCh-17 P-27PSCh-17 P-28PSCh-17 P-29PSCh-17 P-30PSCh-17 P-31PSCh-17 P-32PSCh-17 P-33PSCh-17 P-35PSCh-17 P-36PSCh-17 P-37PSCh-17 P-38PSCh-17 P-39PSCh-17 P-40PSCh-17 P-41PSCh-17 P-42PSCh-17 P-43PSCh-17 P-44PSCh-17 P-45PSCh-17 P-46PSCh-17 P-47PSCh-17 P-48PSCh-17 P-49PSCh-17 P-50PSCh-17 P-51PSCh-17 P-52PSCh-17 P-53PSCh-17 P-54PSCh-17 P-55PSCh-17 P-56PSCh-17 P-57PSCh-17 P-58PSCh-17 P-59PSCh-17 P-60PSCh-17 P-61PSCh-17 P-62PSCh-17 P-63PSCh-17 P-64PSCh-17 P-65PSCh-17 P-66PSCh-17 P-67PSCh-17 P-68PSCh-17 P-69PSCh-17 P-70PSCh-17 P-71PSCh-17 P-72PSCh-17 P-73PSCh-17 P-74PSCh-17 P-75PSCh-17 P-76PSCh-17 P-77GQCh-17 P-78GQCh-17 P-79GQCh-17 P-80GQCh-17 P-81GQCh-17 P-82GQCh-17 P-83GQCh-17 P-84GQCh-17 P-85GQCh-17 P-86GQCh-17 P-87GQCh-17 P-88GQCh-17 P-89GQCh-17 P-90GQCh-17 P-91GQCh-17 P-92GQCh-17 P-93GQCh-17 P-94GQCh-17 P-95GQCh-17 P-96GQCh-17 P-97GQCh-17 P-98GQCh-17 P-99GQCh-17 P-100GQCh-17 P-101ILCh-17 P-102ILCh-17 P-103ILCh-17 P-104ILCh-17 P-105ILCh-17 P-106ILCh-17 P-107ILCh-17 P-108ILCh-17 P-109ILCh-17 P-110ILCh-17 P-111ILCh-17 P-112ILCh-17 P-113SCQCh-17 P-114SCQCh-17 P-115SCQCh-17 P-116SCQCh-17 P-117SCQCh-17 P-118SCQCh-17 P-119SCQCh-17 P-120SCQ

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