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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The following statements relate to the reaction for the formation of HI:

H2(g) + I2(g) → 2 HI(g)    Rate = k[H2][I2]

Determine which of the following statements are true. If a statement is false, indicate why it is incorrect.

  1. (a) The reaction must occur in a single step.
  2. (b) This is a second-order reaction overall.
  3. (c) Raising the temperature will cause the value of k to decrease.
  4. (d) Raising the temperature lowers the activation energy for this reaction.
  5. (e) If the concentrations of both reactants are doubled, the rate will double.
  6. (f) Adding a catalyst in the reaction will cause the initial rate to increase.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given set of statements should be identified that whether they are true or false to the given respective given chemical reaction and the false the statements are should be explained.

Concept introduction:

Collision theory: The rate for the reaction is predicted by using collisions theory. In order to form bond the atoms present in the reactants should collide each other for the bond formation.

In order to establish the plausibility of a mechanism, one must compare the rate law of the rate determining step to the experimentally determined rate law.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Rate determining step: In a chemical reaction the rate determining step is the slowest step in which the rate of the reaction depends on the rate of that slowest step.

Activation energy: It is defined as the minimum energy required by the reacting species in order to undergo chemical reaction.

Rate constant: The rate constant for a chemical reaction is the proportionality term in the chemical reaction rate law which gives the relationship between the rate and the concentration of the reactant present in the chemical reaction.

Rate order: The order of each reactant in a reaction is represented by the exponential term of the respective reactant present in the rate law and the overall order of the reaction is the sum of all the exponents of all reactants present in the chemical reaction. The order of the reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants.

Catalyst: The catalyst is a chemical substance that increases the rate of the reaction without participating in the reaction by reducing the activation energy of the reaction.

Explanation

Reasons for true statements:

The statement in option (b) describes the rate of the reaction depends on the concentrate of the reactants present in the reaction.

The above statement is a true statement since the given rate law determines it.

  Rate=k[H2]1[I2]1Rate=1+1=2.

But the sum of the co-efficient of the reactants will not be always equal to the rate of the reaction.

In option (f) describes the response of the rate of the reaction with respect to catalyst involved in the reaction.

The definition of the catalyst clearly explains that it is actually used to increase reaction rates.

Therefore, the statements in option (b) and in option (e) are true statements.

Reasons for false statements:

The statement in option (a) describes that this is a single step reaction.

But it has actually a two steps where the first step is the breaking of I2 to yield 2I which then reacts with the other given reactant.

The statement in option (c) explains the relation between the temperature and the rate.

The reactions are faster if temperature of the reaction gets increases due to the fact that the reactant molecules efficiently collide with each other such they will get enough energy to cross over the activation energy.

Hence increase in the temperature makes the value of the k to increase since temperature increases the collisions between the reactant molecules which then tend to overcome the activation energy easily results to increase the rate, k

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