   Chapter 8, Problem 32PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Considering both formal charge and bond polarities, predict on which atom or atoms the positive charge resides in the following cations: (a) H3O+ (b) NH4+ (c) NO2+ (d) NF4+

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The atom or atoms that the positive charge resides on the given anion has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

The unequal distribution of shared electrons caused by differences in electronegativity between bonded atoms is called bond polarity.

Formal charge: The charge that is given to an atom in a molecule by assuming that the shared electrons between the two bonded atoms are equally shared between them.

The formal charge on an atom could be calculated as followed:

Formalcharge=NvalenceNnonbondedNbond2

Explanation

The ion is H3O+

Formal charge on O =6262=+1

Forma

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The atom or atoms that the positive charge resides on the given anion has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

The unequal distribution of shared electrons caused by differences in electronegativity between bonded atoms is called bond polarity.

Formal charge: The charge that is given to an atom in a molecule by assuming that the shared electrons between the two bonded atoms are equally shared between them.

The formal charge on an atom could be calculated as followed:

Formalcharge=NvalenceNnonbondedNbond2

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The atom or atoms that the positive charge resides on the given anion has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

The unequal distribution of shared electrons caused by differences in electronegativity between bonded atoms is called bond polarity.

Formal charge: The charge that is given to an atom in a molecule by assuming that the shared electrons between the two bonded atoms are equally shared between them.

The formal charge on an atom could be calculated as followed:

Formalcharge=NvalenceNnonbondedNbond2

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The atom or atoms that the positive charge resides on the given anion has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

The unequal distribution of shared electrons caused by differences in electronegativity between bonded atoms is called bond polarity.

Formal charge: The charge that is given to an atom in a molecule by assuming that the shared electrons between the two bonded atoms are equally shared between them.

The formal charge on an atom could be calculated as followed:

Formalcharge=NvalenceNnonbondedNbond2

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