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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Vanillin is the flavoring agent in vanilla extract and in vanilla ice cream. Its structure is shown here:

images

  1. (a) Give values for the three bond angles indicated.
  2. (b) Indicate the shortest carbon-oxygen bond in the molecule.
  3. (c) Indicate the most polar bond in the molecule.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The bond angle in the given compound should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • In VSEPR, the geometry of the molecule is explained based on minimizing electrostatic repulsion between the molecules’ valence electrons around a central atom
  • Bond angle is the angle between two bonds of a molecule and it is determined based on the electron-domain geometry.

[Bond angles: tetrahedral = 109.5o, trigonal planar = 120o, T-shape = 90o]

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons.

Bond angle: It is defined as the angle between the orbital contacting bonding electron pair around the central atom in a molecule ion. Bond angle is expressed in degree.

Explanation

The compound is given below:

In bond angle 1 and 3, the geometry of central carbon atom is trigonal planar to minimize the electrostatic repulsion between the atom. Hence, the bond angle of O=CH and HC=

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The shorter carbon–oxygen bond in the molecule has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Bond length is inversely proportional to the bond order.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The most polar bond in the given compound should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Polarity: It is a well separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or chemical compounds having an electrical dipole moment. Generally the polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a different in electronegative between the bonded atoms.

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