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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Determine the formal charge on each atom in the following molecules or ions:

  1. (a) SCO
  2. (b) HCO2 (formate ion)
  3. (c) CO32−
  4. (d) HCO2H (formic acid)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The formal charge for each atom present in SCO should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Formal charge (FC): The charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)+12(numberof bondingelectrons)]

Explanation

The Lewis structure of the SCO molecules identified as follows,

  

The formal charge of atoms present in SCO are as follows,

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)+12(numberof bondingelectrons)]

The formal charge for atom in molecule is determined by plugging the number of valence bonded and non-bonded electrons around the respective atom in a molecule into the formula

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The formal charge for each atom present in HCO2- should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Formal charge (FC): The charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)+12(numberof bondingelectrons)]

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The formal charge for each atom present in HCO2- should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Formal charge (FC): The charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)+12(numberof bondingelectrons)]

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The formal charge for each atom present in HCO2- should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Formal charge (FC): The charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)+12(numberof bondingelectrons)]

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