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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

A paper published in the research Journal Science in 2007 (S. Vallina and R. Simo, Science, Vol. 315, p. 506, January 26, 2007) reported studies of dimethylsulfide (DMS), an important green-house gas that is released by marine phytoplankton. This gas “represents the largest natural source of atmospheric sulfur and a major precursor of hygroscopic (i.e., cloud-forming) particles in clean air over the remote oceans, thereby acting to reduce the amount of solar radiation that crosses the atmosphere and is absorbed by the ocean.”

  1. (a) Sketch the Lewis structure of dimethylsulfide, CH3SCH3, and list the bond angles in the molecule.
  2. (b) Use electronegativities to decide where the positive and negative charges lie in the molecule. Is the molecule polar?
  3. (c) The mean seawater concentration of DMS in the ocean in the region between 15° north latitude and 15° south latitude is 2.7 nM (nanomolar). How many molecules of DMS are present in 1.0 m3 of seawater?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The Lewis structure of given molecule dimethylsulfide CH3SCH3 should be drawn and its bond angles should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Bond angle: It is defined as the angle between the orbital contacting bonding electron pair around the central atom in a molecule ion. Bond angle is expressed in degree.

Explanation

The Lewis electron dot structure for given molecules are determined by first drawing the skeletal structure for the given molecules, then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecules are determined.

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed considering each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

The Lewis structure for given molecule is as follows,

  

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The positive and negative charges in given molecule should be decided using electronegativity.

Concept Introduction:

Electronegativity: It is defined as the capacity of the atom to abstract the pair of electrons towards itself results to have high negative charge.

  • Polar molecule: The molecule with atoms bonded with different electronegativity. Dipole moment is used to measure the polarity of the molecule.
  • Polarity of a molecule is measured in term of dipole moment.
  • Dipole moment for a polar molecule is non-zero and for a non-polar molecule dipole moment is zero

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The number of molecules of dimethylsulfide present in given concentration amount should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Molarity: The concentration for solutions is expressed in terms of molarity as follows,

Molarity = No. of moles of soluteVolume of solution in L

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