Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

It is possible to draw three resonance structures for HNO3, one of which contributes much less to the resonance hybrid than the other two. Sketch the three resonance structures, and assign a formal charge to each atom. Which one of your structures is the least important?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The three resonance structure of HNO3 with formal charge should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

Bond angle: It is defined as the angle between the orbital contacting bonding electron piar around the central atom in a molecule ion. Bond angle is expressed in degree.

Resonance structures: A molecule or ion which show more than structure but none of them are accurately correct show the known property of that molecule, and can lie between the canonical structure is known as resonance or canonical or contributing structure.

Electro neutrality principle: The electro neutrality principle or Pauli’s 2nd principle states that each atom in a stable substance has a charge close to zero. It was formulated by Lanus Pauling in 1948 and later revised.

This principle has been used to predict the set of molecular resonance structure would be the most significant to explain the stability of the inorganic complex.

Electronegativity: It is the ability of atom to attract lone pair of electrons towards itself in a molecule.

Formal charge (FC): The charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)+12(numberof bondingelectrons)]


The Lewis structure for given molecule is as follows,


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