   Chapter 8, Problem 36PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Compare the electron dot structures of the carbonate (CO32−) and borate (BO33−) ions. (a) Are these ions isoelectronic? (b) How many resonance structures does each ion have? (c) What are the formal charges of each atom in these ions? (d) If an H+ ion attaches to CO32− to form the bicarbonate ion, HCO3−, does it attach to an O atom or to the C atom?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

By comparing electron dot structures of carbonate ion and borate ion, the isoelectronic nature has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Formal charge: It is the electrostatic charge that would reside on an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion if all bonding electron are shared equally between pairs of atoms.

Formal charge calculation: The formal charge for atom in a molecule or ion is calculated based on the Lewis structure of the molecule or ion by following the given equation below:

Formal charge calculation of molecule or ion =NVE-{LPE+12(BE)

Resonance structures:

A molecule or ion which show more than structure but none of them are accurately correct show the known property of that molecule, and can lie between the canonical structure is known as resonance or canonical or contributing structure.

Explanation

Yes, these species are isoelectronic

CO32-:_ValenceelectronofCarbon: 4Valence of Oxygen: 6×3=18=(4+18)+2=24electrons

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Number of Resonance structures do each species have, has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Formal charge: It is the electrostatic charge that would reside on an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion if all bonding electron are shared equally between pairs of atoms.

Formal charge calculation: The formal charge for atom in a molecule or ion is calculated based on the Lewis structure of the molecule or ion by following the given equation below:

Formal charge calculation of molecule or ion =NVE-{LPE+12(BE)

Resonance structures:

A molecule or ion which show more than structure but none of them are accurately correct show the known property of that molecule, and can lie between the canonical structure is known as resonance or canonical or contributing structure.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The formal charge of each atom in these species has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Formal charge: It is the electrostatic charge that would reside on an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion if all bonding electron are shared equally between pairs of atoms.

Formal charge calculation: The formal charge for atom in a molecule or ion is calculated based on the Lewis structure of the molecule or ion by following the given equation below:

Formal charge calculation of molecule or ion =NVE-{LPE+12(BE)

Resonance structures:

A molecule or ion which show more than structure but none of them are accurately correct show the known property of that molecule, and can lie between the canonical structure is known as resonance or canonical or contributing structure.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

A proton attached to an O-atom or to the C-atom of carbonate ion has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Formal charge: It is the electrostatic charge that would reside on an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion if all bonding electron are shared equally between pairs of atoms.

Formal charge calculation: The formal charge for atom in a molecule or ion is calculated based on the Lewis structure of the molecule or ion by following the given equation below:

Formal charge calculation of molecule or ion =NVE-{LPE+12(BE)

Resonance structures:

A molecule or ion which show more than structure but none of them are accurately correct show the known property of that molecule, and can lie between the canonical structure is known as resonance or canonical or contributing structure.

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