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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The cyanate ion, OCN, has the least electronegative atom, C, in the center. The unstable fulminate ion, CNO, has the same molecular formula, but the N atom is in the center.

  1. (a) Draw the three possible resonance structures of CNO.
  2. (b) On the basis of formal charges, decide on the resonance structure with the most reasonable distribution of charge
  3. (c) Mercury fulminate is so unstable it is used in blasting caps for dynamite. Can you offer an explanation for this instability? (Hint: Are the formal charges in any resonance structure reasonable in view of the relative electronegativities of the atoms?)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To draw three possible resonance structure of CNO.

Concept Introduction:

Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.

All the possible resonance structures are imaginary whereas the resonance hybrid is real.

These structures will differ only in the arrangement of the electrons not in the relative position of the atomic nuclei.

Explanation

The resonance structure of the isocyanate ion

In the case of the CNO<

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify the resonance structure of CNO with the most reasonable distribution of charge on the basis of formal charges.

Concept Introduction:

Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.

A formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electronegativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

This method is used to identify the most probable Lewis structures if more than one possibility exists for a compound.

The Lewis structure of a molecule with zero formal charge for all atoms is more important than molecules having nonzero formal charge

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(no.ofvalenceelectroninatom)12(no.ofbondingelectrons)(no.ofnon-bondingelectrons)

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reason for the instability of mercury fulminate has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Sometimes the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis structure. In these cases, the chemical bonding are described by delocalization of electrons and is known as resonance.

A formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electronegativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

This method is used to identify the most probable Lewis structures if more than one possibility exists for a compound.

The Lewis structure of a molecule with zero formal charge for all atoms is more important than molecules having nonzero formal charge

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