   Chapter 16, Problem 37PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Acetic acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3, are mixed in water. Write a balanced equation for the acid-base reaction that could, in principle, occur. Using Table 16.2, decide whether the equilibrium lies predominantly to the right or to the left.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The balanced reaction has o be written for the acid-base reaction equilibrium occuring between CH3COOH and NaHCO3, and also direction to be predicted when the reaction is in equilibrium.

Concept introduction:

Balanced reaction is a chemical reaction in which number of atoms for each element in the reaction and the total charge are same on both reactant side and the product side.

Steps in balancing the information

• Step 1: Write the unbalanced equation
• Step 2: Find the coefficient to balance the equation.
• The coefficient should be reduced to the smallest whole number

An acid-base reaction reaction is represented as written below.

HA(aq)+B(aq)   BH+(aq)  +    A(aq)(acid)    (base)        (conjugate     acid)   (conjugate     base)

The base will take up the proton from acid and form its conjugate acid and simultaneously acid will form its conjugate base. The equilibrium will be forward or backward can be determined by using the dissociation constants (Kaand Kb) for reactants as well as of the products.

For example the acid-base reaction between CH3COOH and NaHCO3 is written as follows,

CH3COOH(aq)+ NaHCO3(aq)H2CO3(aq)+ CH3COONa(aq)

Here, CH3COOH is acid and is CH3COONa its conjugate base, similarly NaHCO3 is a base and H2CO3 is its conjugate acid.

Explanation

The value of dissociation constants Kaand Kb are as follows,

CH3COOH(Ka)=1.8×105H2CO3(Ka)=4.2×107CH3COO(Kb)=5.6×1010NaHCO3(Kb)=2

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