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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Several acids are listed here with their respective equilibrium constants:

HF(aq) + H2O() ⇄ H3O+(aq) + F(aq) Ka = 7.2 × 10−4

HPO42−(aq) + H2O(ℓ) ⇄ H3O+(aq) + PO43−(aq) Ka = 3.6 × 10−13

CH3CO2(H) + H2O(ℓ) ⇄ H3O+(aq) + CH3CO2(aq) Ka = 1.8 × 10−5

  1. (a) Which is the strongest acid? Which is the weakest acid?
  2. (b) What is the conjugate base of the acid I IF?
  3. (c) Which acid has the weakest conjugate base?
  4. (d) Which acid has the strongest conjugate base?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The strongest acid and the weakest acid has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

Strong acids dissociate completely in water which produce H+ ion, while weak acids dissociate partially in water and produce H+ ion.

An equilibrium constant (K) is the ratio of concentration of products and reactants raised to appropriate stoichiometric coefficient at equlibrium.

For the general acid HA,

  HA(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+A(aq)

The relative strength of an acid and base in water can be also expressed quantitatively with an equilibrium constant as follows:

Ka=[H3O+][A][HA]

An equilibrium constant (K) with subscript a indicate that it is an equilibrium constant of an acid in water.

Explanation

For the hydrogen flouride (HF),

  HF(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+F(aq)

Ka=[H3O+][F][HF]

A large value of Ka=7.2×104 indicates that the ionization product is strongly favoured because the product [H3O+][F] is more than the equilibrium concentration of the strong acid [HF].

For the hydrogen phosphate (HPO42),

    HPO42(aq)+H2O(l

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The conjucate base of HF has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

Bronsted –Lowry conjugated acid-Base pairs:

When an acid is dissolved in water, the acid (HA) donates a proton to water to form a new acid (conjugated acid) and a new base (conjugated base).

images

The pair of an Acid –Base differs by a proton called conjugated Acid-Base pair.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The weakest conjucate base has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

Bronsted –Lowry conjugated acid-Base pairs:

When an acid is dissolved in water, the acid (HA) donates a proton to water to form a new acid (conjugated acid) and a new base (conjugated base).

images

The pair of an Acid –Base differs by a proton called conjugated Acid-Base pair.

An equilibrium constant (K) is the ratio of concentration of products and reactants raised to appropriate stoichiometric coefficient at equlibrium.

For the general acid HA,

  HA(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+A(aq)

The relative strength of an acid and base in water can be also expressed quantitatively with an equilibrium constant as follows:

Ka=[H3O+][A][HA]

An equilibrium constant (K) with subscript a indicate that it is an equilibrium constant of an acid in water.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The strongest conjucate base has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

Bronsted –Lowry conjugated acid-Base pairs:

When an acid is dissolved in water, the acid (HA) donates a proton to water to form a new acid (conjugated acid) and a new base (conjugated base).

images

The pair of an Acid –Base differs by a proton called conjugated Acid-Base pair.

An equilibrium constant (K) is the ratio of concentration of products and reactants raised to appropriate stoichiometric coefficient at equlibrium.

For the general acid HA,

  HA(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+A(aq)

The relative strength of an acid and base in water can be also expressed quantitatively with an equilibrium constant as follows:

Ka=[H3O+][A][HA]

An equilibrium constant (K) with subscript a indicate that it is an equilibrium constant of an acid in water.

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Chapter 16 Solutions

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Sect-16.10 P-1.2ACPSect-16.10 P-1.3ACPSect-16.10 P-2.1ACPSect-16.10 P-2.2ACPSect-16.10 P-2.3ACPSect-16.10 P-2.4ACPSect-16.10 P-2.5ACPCh-16 P-1PSCh-16 P-2PSCh-16 P-3PSCh-16 P-4PSCh-16 P-5PSCh-16 P-6PSCh-16 P-7PSCh-16 P-8PSCh-16 P-9PSCh-16 P-10PSCh-16 P-11PSCh-16 P-12PSCh-16 P-13PSCh-16 P-14PSCh-16 P-15PSCh-16 P-16PSCh-16 P-17PSCh-16 P-18PSCh-16 P-19PSCh-16 P-20PSCh-16 P-21PSCh-16 P-22PSCh-16 P-23PSCh-16 P-24PSCh-16 P-25PSCh-16 P-26PSCh-16 P-27PSCh-16 P-28PSCh-16 P-29PSCh-16 P-30PSCh-16 P-31PSCh-16 P-32PSCh-16 P-33PSCh-16 P-34PSCh-16 P-35PSCh-16 P-36PSCh-16 P-37PSCh-16 P-38PSCh-16 P-39PSCh-16 P-40PSCh-16 P-41PSCh-16 P-42PSCh-16 P-43PSCh-16 P-44PSCh-16 P-45PSCh-16 P-46PSCh-16 P-47PSCh-16 P-48PSCh-16 P-49PSCh-16 P-50PSCh-16 P-51PSCh-16 P-52PSCh-16 P-53PSCh-16 P-54PSCh-16 P-55PSCh-16 P-56PSCh-16 P-57PSCh-16 P-58PSCh-16 P-59PSCh-16 P-60PSCh-16 P-61PSCh-16 P-62PSCh-16 P-63PSCh-16 P-64PSCh-16 P-65PSCh-16 P-66PSCh-16 P-67PSCh-16 P-68PSCh-16 P-69PSCh-16 P-70PSCh-16 P-71PSCh-16 P-72PSCh-16 P-73PSCh-16 P-74PSCh-16 P-75PSCh-16 P-76PSCh-16 P-77PSCh-16 P-78PSCh-16 P-79PSCh-16 P-80PSCh-16 P-81PSCh-16 P-82PSCh-16 P-83PSCh-16 P-84PSCh-16 P-85GQCh-16 P-86GQCh-16 P-87GQCh-16 P-88GQCh-16 P-89GQCh-16 P-90GQCh-16 P-91GQCh-16 P-92GQCh-16 P-93GQCh-16 P-94GQCh-16 P-95GQCh-16 P-96GQCh-16 P-97GQCh-16 P-98GQCh-16 P-99GQCh-16 P-100GQCh-16 P-101GQCh-16 P-102GQCh-16 P-103GQCh-16 P-104GQCh-16 P-105GQCh-16 P-106GQCh-16 P-107GQCh-16 P-108GQCh-16 P-109GQCh-16 P-110GQCh-16 P-111ILCh-16 P-112ILCh-16 P-113ILCh-16 P-114ILCh-16 P-115ILCh-16 P-116ILCh-16 P-117ILCh-16 P-118ILCh-16 P-119SCQCh-16 P-120SCQCh-16 P-121SCQCh-16 P-122SCQCh-16 P-123SCQCh-16 P-124SCQCh-16 P-125SCQCh-16 P-126SCQCh-16 P-127SCQCh-16 P-128SCQCh-16 P-129SCQ

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