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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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Alkali metal hydroxides are sometimes used to “scrub” excess carbon dioxide from the air in closed spaces (such as submarines and spacecraft). For example, lithium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide according to the unbalanced chemical equation

:math> LiOH ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) Li 2 CO 3 ( s ) + H 2 O ( g )

ppose a lithium hydroxide canister contains 155 g of LiOH ( s ) . What mass of CO 2 ( g ) will the canister be able to absorb? If it is found that after 24 hours of use the canister has absorbed 102 g of carbon dioxide, what percentage of its capacity has been reached?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The mass of CO2 is absorbed and what percentage of its capacity has been reached after 24 hours should be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

A balanced chemical equation is an equation that contains same number of atoms as well as of each element of reactants and products of reaction.

For example, the reaction between lead sulphide and oxygen is as follows:

2 PbS +  3 O22PbO +  2SO2  Reactants            Products

The limiting reactant in a particular reaction has due to following properties:

  1. Limiting reactant completely reacted in a particular reaction.
  2. Limiting reactant determines the amount of the product in mole.
Explanation

Theoretical yield is also known as calculated yield. Theoretical yield is the amount of product which is theatrically calculates by the amount of limiting agent. It is the maximum amount of product which is formed in any reaction.

Other name of actual yield is observed yield.

The percentage yield is calculated by the actual or observed experimental yield divided by the theoretical yield and multiplied by 100.

The percentage yield can be calculates by the use of following expression:

Actual yield or given yield Theoretical yield or calculated yield ×100%   

Theoretical yield is the greatest amount of a product possible from a reaction, when assume that the reaction goes to 100% competition.

The balance equation for the lithium hydroxide and carbon dioxide is as follows:

2LiOH(s)+CO2(g)Li2CO3(s)+H2O(l)

Given:

Amount of LiOH = 155 g

Calculation:

Number of moles of LiOH is calculated as follows:

Number of moles=mass in gmolarmass=155 g23.95 g/mol=6.47 moles LiOH

Now calculated the theoretical amount of CO2 as follows:

6.47 moles LiOH× 1

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