   Chapter 4, Problem 136SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

A weighed sample of iron (Fe) is added to liquid bromine (Br2) and allowed to react completely. The reaction produces a single product, which can be isolated and weighed. The experiment was repeated a number of times with different masses of iron but with the same mass of bromine (see graph below). (a) What mass of Br2 is used when the reaction consumes 2.0 g of Fe? (b) What is the mole ratio of Br2 to Fe in the reaction? (c) What is the empirical formula of the product? (d) Write the balanced chemical equation tor the reaction of iron and bromine. (e) What is the name of the reaction product? (f) Which statement or statements best describe the experiments summarized by the graph? (i) When 1.00 g of Fe is added to the Br2, Fe is the limiting reagent. (ii) When 3.50 g of Fe is added to the Br2, there is an excess of Br2. (iii) When 2.50 g of Fe is added to the Br2, both reactanu are used up compietely. (iv) When 2.00 g of Fe is added to the Br2, 10.8 g of product is formed. The percent yield must therefore be 20.0%.

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The mass of Br2 used when the reaction consumes 2.0gofFe has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

• Empirical formula of a compound represents the smallest whole number relative ratio of elements in that compound.
• Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass
• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
• For chemical reaction balanced chemical reaction equation written in accordance with the Law of conservation of mass.
• Law of conservation of mass states that for a reaction total mass of the reactant and product must be equal. Stoichiometric factor is a relationship between reactant and product which is obtained from the balanced chemical equation for a particular reaction.
• Limiting reagent: limiting reagent is a reactant, which consumes completely in the chemical reaction. The quantity of the product depends on this limiting reagent, it can be determined with the help of balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
Explanation

Herein weighted sample of iron is added to liquid bromine and allowed to react completely. The reaction produces a single product which can be isolated and weighed.

The experiment was repeated a number of times with different masses of iron but with the same mass of bromine. The graphical representation for this reaction is,

From the graph it is clear that, when 2gofFe consumed 11g of product is formed.

So that the mass of Br2 used when the reaction consumes 2

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The mole ratio of Br2 to Fe in the reaction has to be answered.

Concept introduction:

• Empirical formula of a compound represents the smallest whole number relative ratio of elements in that compound.
• Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass
• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
• For chemical reaction balanced chemical reaction equation written in accordance with the Law of conservation of mass.
• Law of conservation of mass states that for a reaction total mass of the reactant and product must be equal. Stoichiometric factor is a relationship between reactant and product which is obtained from the balanced chemical equation for a particular reaction.
• Limiting reagent: limiting reagent is a reactant, which consumes completely in the chemical reaction. The quantity of the product depends on this limiting reagent, it can be determined with the help of balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The empirical formula of the product has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

• Empirical formula of a compound represents the smallest whole number relative ratio of elements in that compound.
• Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass
• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
• For chemical reaction balanced chemical reaction equation written in accordance with the Law of conservation of mass.
• Law of conservation of mass states that for a reaction total mass of the reactant and product must be equal. Stoichiometric factor is a relationship between reactant and product which is obtained from the balanced chemical equation for a particular reaction.
• Limiting reagent: limiting reagent is a reactant, which consumes completely in the chemical reaction. The quantity of the product depends on this limiting reagent, it can be determined with the help of balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The balanced chemical equation for the reaction of iron and bromine has to be written.

Concept introduction:

• Empirical formula of a compound represents the smallest whole number relative ratio of elements in that compound.
• Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass
• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
• For chemical reaction balanced chemical reaction equation written in accordance with the Law of conservation of mass.
• Law of conservation of mass states that for a reaction total mass of the reactant and product must be equal. Stoichiometric factor is a relationship between reactant and product which is obtained from the balanced chemical equation for a particular reaction.
• Limiting reagent: limiting reagent is a reactant, which consumes completely in the chemical reaction. The quantity of the product depends on this limiting reagent, it can be determined with the help of balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reaction product has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

• Empirical formula of a compound represents the smallest whole number relative ratio of elements in that compound.
• Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass
• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
• For chemical reaction balanced chemical reaction equation written in accordance with the Law of conservation of mass.
• Law of conservation of mass states that for a reaction total mass of the reactant and product must be equal. Stoichiometric factor is a relationship between reactant and product which is obtained from the balanced chemical equation for a particular reaction.
• Limiting reagent: limiting reagent is a reactant, which consumes completely in the chemical reaction. The quantity of the product depends on this limiting reagent, it can be determined with the help of balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

By using the graphical data given set of questions has to be answered.

Concept introduction:

• Empirical formula of a compound represents the smallest whole number relative ratio of elements in that compound.
• Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass
• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
• For chemical reaction balanced chemical reaction equation written in accordance with the Law of conservation of mass.
• Law of conservation of mass states that for a reaction total mass of the reactant and product must be equal. Stoichiometric factor is a relationship between reactant and product which is obtained from the balanced chemical equation for a particular reaction.
• Limiting reagent: limiting reagent is a reactant, which consumes completely in the chemical reaction. The quantity of the product depends on this limiting reagent, it can be determined with the help of balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

The statement (i) “when 1.00g of Fe is added to the Br2, Fe is the limiting reagent” is the correct statement to describe the experiments summarized by the graph.

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