   Chapter 4, Problem 120GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

ATOM ECONOMY: Ethylene oxide, C2H4O, is an important industrial chemical [as it is the starting place to make such important chemicals as ethylene glycol (antifreeze) and various polymers]. One way to make the compound is called the “chlorohydrin route.”C2H4 + Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 → C2H4O + CaCl2 + H2OAnother route is the modern catalytic reaction.C2H4 + 1/2 O2 → C2H4O (a) Calculate the % atom economy for the production of C2H4O in each of these reactions. Which is the more efficient method? (b) What is the percent yield of C2H4O if 867 g of C2H4 is used to synthesize 762 g of the product by the catalytic reaction?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The %atomeconomy for the product in the given reactions has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

• Atom economy is one of the key parameter used to evaluate the efficiency of a reaction.

%atomeconomy=molarmassofatomutilizedmolarmassofreactants×100%

• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
• Percent yield of reaction is the ratio of mass of actual yield to the mass of theoretical yield and multiplied with hundred.
• Reactions which are carried out with the help of catalysts are known as catalytic reactions.
Explanation

Atom economy is one of the key parameters used to evaluate the efficiency of a reaction.

Atom economy percentage of a reaction can be calculated by using the following equation.

%atomeconomy=molarmassofatomutilizedmolarmassofreactants×100%

In the first reaction preparation of C2H4O has done through the reactions,

C2H4+Cl2+Ca(OH)2C2H4O+CaCl2+H2O

In the above reaction reactant molecule contains 2C,6H,1O,1Ca,and2Cl so the combined molar mass of the reactants is 157.07g/mol

The product molecule C2H4O contains 2C,4H,and1O and so its molar mass is 44g/mol

%atomeconomy=molarmassofatomutilizedmolarmassofreactants×100% =(44)(157

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Percent yield of given reaction has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

• Atom economy is one of the key parameter used to evaluate the efficiency of a reaction.

%atomeconomy=molarmassofatomutilizedmolarmassofreactants×100%

• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
• Percent yield of reaction is the ratio of mass of actual yield to the mass of theoretical yield and multiplied with hundred.
• Reactions which are carried out with the help of catalysts are known as catalytic reactions.

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