   Chapter 4, Problem 119GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

ATOM ECONOMY: One type of reaction used in the chemical industry is a substitution, where one atom or group is exchanged for another. In this reaction, an alcohol, 1-butanol, is transformed into 1-bromobutane by substituting Br for the −OH group in the presence of sulfuric acid.CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + NaBr + H2SO4 → CH3CH2CH2CH2Br + NaHSO4 + H2OCalculate the % atom economy for the desired product, CH3CH2CH2CH2Br.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The % atom economy for the product in the given reaction has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

• Atom economy is one of the key parameters used to evaluate the efficiency of a reaction.

%atomeconomy=molarmassofatomutilizedmolarmassofreactants×100%

• The molar mass of an element or compound is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance, and it is expressed in the unit of grams per mol (g/mol).
Explanation

Atom economy is one of the key parameters used to evaluate the efficiency of a reaction.

Atom economy percentage of a reaction can be calculated by using the following equation.

%atomeconomy=molarmassofatomutilizedmolarmassofreactants×100%

In the given reaction the product 1-bromobutane is prepared from butanol

(CH3CH2CH2CH2OH), sodium bromide (NaBr), and sulphuric acid (H2SO4)

The reaction can be represented as follows,

CH3CH2CH2CH2OH+NaBr+H2SO4CH3CH2CH2CH2Br+NaHSO4+H2O<

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