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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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. The concepts of acid-base equilibria were developed in this chapter for aqueous solutions (in aqueous solutions, water is the solvent and is intimately involved in the equilibria). However, the Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory can be extended easily to other solvents. One such solvent that has been investigated in depth is liquid ammonia. NH3.

a. Write a chemical equation indicating how HCl behaves as an acid in liquid ammonia.

b. Write a chemical equation indicating how OH- behaves as a base in liquid ammonia.

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The way HCl behaves as an acid in liquid ammonia instead of in an aqueous medium should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Lowry-Bronsted theory was propose d in 1923 in order to address the deficiencies of Arrhenius theory. Arrhenius theory was only restricted to determining the acidity/basicity in an aqueous medium. It essentially could not account for the absence of OH- groups in bases such as ammonia and calcium oxide.

According to Lowry- Bronsted theory any substance that donate protons (H+ ) ions to the medium is known as an acid. The medium does not always require to be an aqueous medium. It can be other solvents like ammonia. The behavior of acids in such mediums are also deeply investigated.

Another two key points of this new-theory was the introduction of conjugated acid/base theory as well as the claim that each acid-base reaction is at least slightly reversible. Further it stated that a component that once act as an acid can also function as a base in another instance.

NH3 (ammonia) has this ability and thus known as an amphoteric compound.

Explanation

The equation (1) clearly indicates the acidic behavior of HCl in ammonia. As per Lowry-Bronsted theory HCl being an acid donates a proton to the ammonia molecule...

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The way OH- behaves as an acid in liquid ammonia instead of in an aqueous medium should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Lowry-Bronsted theory was proposed in 1923 in order to address the deficiencies of Arrhenius theory.Arhenius theory was only restricted to determining the acidity/basicity in an aqueous medium. It essentially could not account for the absence of OH- groups in bases such as ammonia and calcium oxide.

According to Lowry- Bronsted theory any substance that donate protons (H+ ) ions to the medium is known as an acid. The medium does not always requires to be an aqueous medium.It can be other solvents like ammonia. The behavior of acids in such mediums are also deeply investigated.

Another two key points of this new-theory was the introduction of conjugated acid/base theory as well as the claim that each acid-base reaction is at least slightly reversible. Further it stated that a component that once act as an acid can also function as a base in another instance.

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Ch-16 P-2ALQCh-16 P-3ALQCh-16 P-4ALQCh-16 P-5ALQCh-16 P-6ALQCh-16 P-7ALQCh-16 P-8ALQCh-16 P-9ALQCh-16 P-10ALQCh-16 P-11ALQCh-16 P-12ALQCh-16 P-13ALQCh-16 P-14ALQCh-16 P-15ALQCh-16 P-16ALQCh-16 P-17ALQCh-16 P-1QAPCh-16 P-2QAPCh-16 P-3QAPCh-16 P-4QAPCh-16 P-5QAPCh-16 P-6QAPCh-16 P-7QAPCh-16 P-8QAPCh-16 P-9QAPCh-16 P-10QAPCh-16 P-11QAPCh-16 P-12QAPCh-16 P-13QAPCh-16 P-14QAPCh-16 P-15QAPCh-16 P-16QAPCh-16 P-17QAPCh-16 P-18QAPCh-16 P-19QAPCh-16 P-20QAPCh-16 P-21QAPCh-16 P-22QAPCh-16 P-23QAPCh-16 P-24QAPCh-16 P-25QAPCh-16 P-26QAPCh-16 P-27QAPCh-16 P-28QAPCh-16 P-29QAPCh-16 P-30QAPCh-16 P-31QAPCh-16 P-32QAPCh-16 P-33QAPCh-16 P-34QAPCh-16 P-35QAPCh-16 P-36QAPCh-16 P-37QAPCh-16 P-38QAPCh-16 P-39QAPCh-16 P-40QAPCh-16 P-41QAPCh-16 P-42QAPCh-16 P-43QAPCh-16 P-44QAPCh-16 P-45QAPCh-16 P-46QAPCh-16 P-47QAPCh-16 P-48QAPCh-16 P-49QAPCh-16 P-50QAPCh-16 P-51QAPCh-16 P-52QAPCh-16 P-53QAPCh-16 P-54QAPCh-16 P-55QAPCh-16 P-56QAPCh-16 P-57QAPCh-16 P-58QAPCh-16 P-59QAPCh-16 P-60QAPCh-16 P-61QAPCh-16 P-62QAPCh-16 P-63QAPCh-16 P-64QAPCh-16 P-65APCh-16 P-66APCh-16 P-67APCh-16 P-68APCh-16 P-69APCh-16 P-70APCh-16 P-71APCh-16 P-72APCh-16 P-73APCh-16 P-74APCh-16 P-75APCh-16 P-76APCh-16 P-77APCh-16 P-78APCh-16 P-79APCh-16 P-80APCh-16 P-81APCh-16 P-82APCh-16 P-83APCh-16 P-84APCh-16 P-85APCh-16 P-86APCh-16 P-87APCh-16 P-88APCh-16 P-89APCh-16 P-90APCh-16 P-91APCh-16 P-92APCh-16 P-93APCh-16 P-94APCh-16 P-95APCh-16 P-96APCh-16 P-97APCh-16 P-98APCh-16 P-99APCh-16 P-100APCh-16 P-101APCh-16 P-102APCh-16 P-103APCh-16 P-104APCh-16 P-105APCh-16 P-106CPCh-16 P-107CPCh-16 P-108CP

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