Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425



Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem

. What happens to the hydroxide ion concentration in aqueous solutions when we increase the hydrogen ion concentration by adding an acid? What happens to the hydrogen ion concentration in aqueous solutions when we increase the hydroxide ion concentration by adding a base? Explain.

Interpretation Introduction


The change in the concentration of OH- when one increases the concentration of H+ should be explained and the change in the concentration of H+ when one increases the OH- concentration should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Lowry-Bronsted theory was proposed in 1923 in order to address the deficiencies of Arrhenius theory. Arrhenius theory was only restricted to determining the acidity/basicity in an aqueous medium. It essentially could not account for the absence of OH- groups in bases such as ammonia and calcium oxide.

According to Lowry- Bronsted theory any substance that donate protons ( H+ ) ions to the medium is known as an acid. The medium does not always requires to be an aqueous medium.It can be other solvents like ammonia. The behavior of acids in such mediums are also deeply investigated.

Another two key points of this new-theory was the introduction of conjugated acid/base theory as well as the claim that each acid-base reaction is at least slightly reversible. Further it stated that a component that once act as an acid can also function as a base in another instance.


According to Lowry-Bronsted acid base theory an acid is defined as a substance that is capable of donating protons (H+ ions) whereas a base is a substance that is capable of abstracting protons (H+ ions). Further they have stated that any acid would have a conjugated base while any given base also has its conjugated acid. In the case of our acetate buffer system if acetic acid is the acid then acetate ions are the conjugate base of acetic acid, Also in reverse if one calls acetate ions as the base, then acetic acid is the conjugated acid of the acetate ions. This leads to Lowry-Bronsted speculation that each acid-base reaction is reversible at lease in a small degree.

We could further illustrate this using our example buffer system.

When acetic acid is dissolved in water it releases a proton to the medium and then functions as an acid. In that case water acts as the base which grabs or abstracts the released proton as shown by equation (1)

The acetate ion ( CH3 COO- ) which is formed in this instance could abstract a proton from the hydronium ion (H3 O+ ) and function as a base. In that case the hydronium ion (H3 O+ ) becomes an acid as shown by equation (2)

By inspecting equation (1) & (2) it is clear that these two reactions are reverse reactions of one another...

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Ch-16 P-2ALQCh-16 P-3ALQCh-16 P-4ALQCh-16 P-5ALQCh-16 P-6ALQCh-16 P-7ALQCh-16 P-8ALQCh-16 P-9ALQCh-16 P-10ALQCh-16 P-11ALQCh-16 P-12ALQCh-16 P-13ALQCh-16 P-14ALQCh-16 P-15ALQCh-16 P-16ALQCh-16 P-17ALQCh-16 P-1QAPCh-16 P-2QAPCh-16 P-3QAPCh-16 P-4QAPCh-16 P-5QAPCh-16 P-6QAPCh-16 P-7QAPCh-16 P-8QAPCh-16 P-9QAPCh-16 P-10QAPCh-16 P-11QAPCh-16 P-12QAPCh-16 P-13QAPCh-16 P-14QAPCh-16 P-15QAPCh-16 P-16QAPCh-16 P-17QAPCh-16 P-18QAPCh-16 P-19QAPCh-16 P-20QAPCh-16 P-21QAPCh-16 P-22QAPCh-16 P-23QAPCh-16 P-24QAPCh-16 P-25QAPCh-16 P-26QAPCh-16 P-27QAPCh-16 P-28QAPCh-16 P-29QAPCh-16 P-30QAPCh-16 P-31QAPCh-16 P-32QAPCh-16 P-33QAPCh-16 P-34QAPCh-16 P-35QAPCh-16 P-36QAPCh-16 P-37QAPCh-16 P-38QAPCh-16 P-39QAPCh-16 P-40QAPCh-16 P-41QAPCh-16 P-42QAPCh-16 P-43QAPCh-16 P-44QAPCh-16 P-45QAPCh-16 P-46QAPCh-16 P-47QAPCh-16 P-48QAPCh-16 P-49QAPCh-16 P-50QAPCh-16 P-51QAPCh-16 P-52QAPCh-16 P-53QAPCh-16 P-54QAPCh-16 P-55QAPCh-16 P-56QAPCh-16 P-57QAPCh-16 P-58QAPCh-16 P-59QAPCh-16 P-60QAPCh-16 P-61QAPCh-16 P-62QAPCh-16 P-63QAPCh-16 P-64QAPCh-16 P-65APCh-16 P-66APCh-16 P-67APCh-16 P-68APCh-16 P-69APCh-16 P-70APCh-16 P-71APCh-16 P-72APCh-16 P-73APCh-16 P-74APCh-16 P-75APCh-16 P-76APCh-16 P-77APCh-16 P-78APCh-16 P-79APCh-16 P-80APCh-16 P-81APCh-16 P-82APCh-16 P-83APCh-16 P-84APCh-16 P-85APCh-16 P-86APCh-16 P-87APCh-16 P-88APCh-16 P-89APCh-16 P-90APCh-16 P-91APCh-16 P-92APCh-16 P-93APCh-16 P-94APCh-16 P-95APCh-16 P-96APCh-16 P-97APCh-16 P-98APCh-16 P-99APCh-16 P-100APCh-16 P-101APCh-16 P-102APCh-16 P-103APCh-16 P-104APCh-16 P-105APCh-16 P-106CPCh-16 P-107CPCh-16 P-108CP

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