General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry - 4th edition - 4th Edition - by by Janice Smith - ISBN 9781259883989
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General, Organic, and Biological Chemis...
4th Edition
by Janice Smith
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN: 9781259883989

Solutions for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry - 4th edition

Browse All Chapters of This Textbook

Chapter 1.10 - Density And Specific GravityChapter 2 - Atoms And The Periodic TableChapter 2.1 - ElementsChapter 2.2 - Structure Of The AtomChapter 2.3 - IsotopesChapter 2.4 - The Periodic TableChapter 2.5 - Electronic StructureChapter 2.6 - Electronic ConfigurationsChapter 2.7 - Valence ElectronsChapter 2.8 - Periodic TrendsChapter 3 - Ionic CompoundsChapter 3.1 - Introduction To BondingChapter 3.2 - IonsChapter 3.3 - Ionic CompoundsChapter 3.4 - Naming Ionic CompoundsChapter 3.5 - Physical Properties Of Ionic CompoundsChapter 3.6 - Polyatomic IonsChapter 4 - Covalent CompoundsChapter 4.1 - Introduction To Covalent BondingChapter 4.2 - Lewis StructuresChapter 4.3 - Exceptions To The Octet RuleChapter 4.4 - ResonanceChapter 4.5 - Naming Covalent CompoundsChapter 4.6 - Molecular ShapeChapter 4.7 - Electronegativity And Bond PolarityChapter 4.8 - Polarity Of MoleculesChapter 4.9 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Covalent Drugs And Medical ProductsChapter 5 - Chemical ReactionsChapter 5.1 - Introduction To Chemical ReactionsChapter 5.2 - Balancing Chemical EquationsChapter 5.3 - Types Of ReactionsChapter 5.4 - Oxidation And ReductionChapter 5.5 - The Mole And Avogadro’s NumberChapter 5.6 - Mass To Mole ConversionsChapter 5.7 - Mole Calculations In Chemical EquationsChapter 5.8 - Mass Calculations In Chemical EquationsChapter 5.9 - Percent YieldChapter 5.10 - Limiting ReactantsChapter 6 - Energy Changes, Reaction Rates, And EquilibriumChapter 6.1 - EnergyChapter 6.2 - Energy Changes In ReactionsChapter 6.3 - Energy DiagramsChapter 6.4 - Reaction RatesChapter 6.5 - EquilibriumChapter 6.6 - Le Châtelier’s PrincipleChapter 7 - Gases, Liquids, And SolidsChapter 7.1 - The Three States Of MatterChapter 7.2 - Gases And PressureChapter 7.3 - Gas Laws That Relate Pressure, Volume, And TemperatureChapter 7.4 - Avogadro’s Law—how Volume And Moles Are RelatedChapter 7.5 - The Ideal Gas LawChapter 7.6 - Dalton’s Law And Partial PressuresChapter 7.7 - Intermolecular Forces, Boiling Point, And Melting PointChapter 7.8 - The Liquid StateChapter 7.9 - The Solid StateChapter 7.10 - Specific HeatChapter 7.11 - Energy And Phase ChangesChapter 7.12 - Heating And Cooling CurvesChapter 8 - SolutionsChapter 8.1 - MixturesChapter 8.2 - Electrolytes And NonelectrolytesChapter 8.3 - Solubility—general FeaturesChapter 8.4 - Solubility—effects Of Temperature And PressureChapter 8.5 - Concentration Units—percent ConcentrationChapter 8.6 - Concentration Units—molarityChapter 8.7 - DilutionChapter 8.8 - Colligative PropertiesChapter 8.9 - Osmosis And DialysisChapter 9 - Acids And BasesChapter 9.1 - Introduction To Acids And BasesChapter 9.2 - The Reaction Of A Brønsted–lowry Acid With A Brønsted–lowry BaseChapter 9.3 - Acid And Base StrengthChapter 9.4 - Equilibrium And Acid Dissociation ConstantsChapter 9.5 - The Dissociation Of WaterChapter 9.6 - The Ph ScaleChapter 9.7 - Common Acid–base ReactionsChapter 9.8 - The Acidity And Basicity Of Salt SolutionsChapter 9.9 - TitrationChapter 9.10 - BuffersChapter 10 - Nuclear ChemistryChapter 10.1 - IntroductionChapter 10.2 - Nuclear ReactionsChapter 10.3 - Half-lifeChapter 10.4 - Detecting And Measuring RadioactivityChapter 10.5 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Medical Uses Of RadioisotopesChapter 10.6 - Nuclear Fission And Nuclear FusionChapter 11 - Introduction To Organic Molecules And Functional GroupsChapter 11.1 - Introduction To Organic ChemistryChapter 11.2 - Characteristic Features Of Organic CompoundsChapter 11.3 - Shapes Of Organic MoleculesChapter 11.4 - Drawing Organic MoleculesChapter 11.5 - Functional GroupsChapter 11.6 - Properties Of Organic CompoundsChapter 11.7 - Focus On Health & Medicine: VitaminsChapter 12 - AlkanesChapter 12.1 - IntroductionChapter 12.2 - Simple AlkanesChapter 12.4 - Alkane NomenclatureChapter 12.5 - CycloalkanesChapter 12.7 - Physical PropertiesChapter 12.8 - Focus On The Environment: CombustionChapter 12.9 - Halogenation Of AlkanesChapter 13 - Unsaturated HydrocarbonsChapter 13.1 - Alkenes And AlkynesChapter 13.2 - Nomenclature Of Alkenes And AlkynesChapter 13.3 - Cis–trans IsomersChapter 13.6 - Reactions Of AlkenesChapter 13.7 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Margarine Or Butter?Chapter 13.8 - Polymers—the Fabric Of Modern SocietyChapter 13.10 - Nomenclature Of Benzene DerivativesChapter 13.11 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Aromatic Drugs, Sunscreens, And CarcinogensChapter 13.12 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Phenols As AntioxidantsChapter 13.13 - Reactions Of Aromatic CompoundsChapter 14 - Organic Compounds That Contain Oxygen, Halogen, Or SulfurChapter 14.1 - IntroductionChapter 14.2 - Structure And Properties Of AlcoholsChapter 14.3 - Nomenclature Of AlcoholsChapter 14.5 - Reactions Of AlcoholsChapter 14.6 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Ethanol, The Most Widely Abused DrugChapter 14.7 - Structure And Properties Of EthersChapter 14.8 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Ethers As AnestheticsChapter 14.9 - Alkyl HalidesChapter 14.10 - Organic Compounds That Contain SulfurChapter 15 - The Three-dimensional Shape Of MoleculesChapter 15.1 - Isomers—a ReviewChapter 15.2 - Looking Glass Chemistry—molecules And Their Mirror ImagesChapter 15.3 - Chirality CentersChapter 15.4 - Chirality Centers In Cyclic CompoundsChapter 15.5 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Chiral DrugsChapter 15.6 - Fischer ProjectionsChapter 15.7 - Optical ActivityChapter 15.8 - Compounds With Two Or More Chirality CentersChapter 15.9 - Focus On The Human Body: The Sense Of SmellChapter 16 - Aldehydes And KetonesChapter 16.1 - Structure And BondingChapter 16.2 - NomenclatureChapter 16.3 - Physical PropertiesChapter 16.4 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Interesting Aldehydes And KetonesChapter 16.5 - Reactions Of Aldehydes And KetonesChapter 16.6 - Reduction Of Aldehydes And KetonesChapter 16.7 - Focus On The Human Body: The Chemistry Of VisionChapter 16.8 - Acetal FormationChapter 17 - Carboxylic Acids, Esters, And AmidesChapter 17.1 - Structure And BondingChapter 17.2 - NomenclatureChapter 17.3 - Physical PropertiesChapter 17.4 - Interesting Carboxylic Acids In Consumer Products And MedicinesChapter 17.5 - Interesting Esters And AmidesChapter 17.6 - The Acidity Of Carboxylic AcidsChapter 17.7 - Focus On Health & Medicine: AspirinChapter 17.8 - The Conversion Of Carboxylic Acids To Esters And AmidesChapter 17.9 - Hydrolysis Of Esters And AmidesChapter 17.10 - Synthetic Polymers In Modern Society—polyamides And PolyestersChapter 17.11 - Focus On Health & Medicine: PenicillinChapter 18 - Amines And NeurotransmittersChapter 18.1 - Structure And BondingChapter 18.2 - NomenclatureChapter 18.3 - Physical PropertiesChapter 18.4 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Caffeine And NicotineChapter 18.5 - Alkaloids—amines From Plant SourcesChapter 18.6 - Amines As BasesChapter 18.7 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Ammonium Salts As Useful DrugsChapter 18.8 - NeurotransmittersChapter 18.9 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Epinephrine And Related CompoundsChapter 18.10 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Histamine And AntihistaminesChapter 19 - LipidsChapter 19.1 - Introduction To LipidsChapter 19.2 - Fatty AcidsChapter 19.3 - WaxesChapter 19.4 - Triacylglycerols—fats And OilsChapter 19.5 - Hydrolysis Of TriacylglycerolsChapter 19.6 - PhospholipidsChapter 19.7 - Cell MembranesChapter 19.8 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Cholesterol, The Most Prominent SteroidChapter 19.9 - Steroid HormonesChapter 19.10 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Fat-soluble VitaminsChapter 19.11 - Focus On Health & Medicine: Prostaglandins And LeukotrienesChapter 20 - CarbohydratesChapter 20.1 - IntroductionChapter 20.2 - MonosaccharidesChapter 20.3 - The Cyclic Forms Of MonosaccharidesChapter 20.4 - Reduction And Oxidation Of MonosaccharidesChapter 20.5 - DisaccharidesChapter 20.6 - PolysaccharidesChapter 20.7 - Focus On The Human Body: Useful Carbohydrate DerivativesChapter 20.8 - Focus On The Human Body: Blood TypeChapter 21 - Amino Acids, Proteins, And EnzymesChapter 21.2 - Amino AcidsChapter 21.3 - Acid–base Behavior Of Amino AcidsChapter 21.4 - PeptidesChapter 21.5 - Focus On The Human Body: Biologically Active PeptidesChapter 21.6 - ProteinsChapter 21.7 - Focus On The Human Body: Common ProteinsChapter 21.8 - Protein Hydrolysis And DenaturationChapter 21.9 - Enzymes—characteristics And ClassificationChapter 21.10 - How Enzymes WorkChapter 22 - Nucleic Acids And Protein SynthesisChapter 22.1 - Nucleosides And NucleotidesChapter 22.2 - Nucleic AcidsChapter 22.3 - The Dna Double HelixChapter 22.4 - ReplicationChapter 22.6 - TranscriptionChapter 22.7 - The Genetic CodeChapter 22.8 - Translation And Protein SynthesisChapter 22.9 - Mutations And Genetic DiseasesChapter 22.10 - Recombinant DnaChapter 23 - Metabolism And Energy ProductionChapter 23.2 - An Overview Of MetabolismChapter 23.3 - Atp And Energy ProductionChapter 23.4 - Coenzymes In MetabolismChapter 23.5 - The Citric Acid CycleChapter 23.6 - The Electron Transport Chain And Oxidative PhosphorylationChapter 24 - Carbohydrate, Lipid, And Protein MetabolismChapter 24.2 - Understanding Biochemical ReactionsChapter 24.3 - GlycolysisChapter 24.4 - The Fate Of PyruvateChapter 24.5 - The Atp Yield From GlucoseChapter 24.6 - GluconeogenesisChapter 24.7 - The Catabolism Of TriacylglycerolsChapter 24.8 - Ketone BodiesChapter 24.9 - Amino Acid MetabolismChapter 25 - Body FluidsChapter 25.1 - Types Of Body FluidsChapter 25.2 - Composition Of The BloodChapter 25.3 - The Transport Of Oxygen And Carbon DioxideChapter 25.4 - Buffers In The BodyChapter 25.5 - The Blood–brain BarrierChapter 25.6 - The Role Of The Kidneys

Sample Solutions for this Textbook

We offer sample solutions for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry - 4th edition homework problems. See examples below:

All the elements are assigned a letter symbol from their name. The symbol is the first or first two...Theelements are organized on the basis of their increasing atomic number in periodic table. Each...Theelements are organized on the basis of their increasing atomic number in periodic table. These...The electrons are distributed in different orbitals of atom. This is known as the electronic...All the elements in the periodic table can be classified as metal, nonmetal and metalloid. In the...All the elements in the periodic table can be classified as metal, non-metal and metalloid. In the...Both Carbon and Oxygen are non-metals. So, the bonds between C and O should be covalent. Hence, CO2...The electronic configuration of Li is 1s22s1. The nearest noble gas to Li is helium (He), whose...Cesium (Cs) has 55 electrons. The electronic configuration of Cs is...Metals form cations by losing electron/s from a valence shell to form completely filled outer shell...Cations are derived from metals. A cation is formed by removing 1 or few electrons from a metal...An ionic compound forms by the mutual attraction of 2 oppositely charged ions. The ion containing...The name of the ionic compound is magnesium phosphate. Here, magnesium forms cation and phosphate...The given name is copper (I) sulfite. Here, copper is cation and sulfite is anion. The cation and...Electronegativity values, Li − 1.0 H − 2.1 Cl − 3.0 Electronegativity difference between Li and Cl =...The electronegativity of H and Br atom is 2.1 and 2.8 respectively. The electronegativity difference...The electronegativity of N and O atom is 3.0 and 3.5 respectively. The electronegativity difference...Given: For the given molecular art, let the red balls represent oxygen atom and black balls...Number of moles of C3H6O3 = 3.60 mol Molar mass of C3H6O3 = 90.01 g/mol The formula will be used to...Number of moles of Vitamin D = 3.60 mol Molar mass of Vitamin D = 384.7 g/mol The formula to be used...According to the equation: 2C2H2+5O2→4CO2+2H2O Moles ratio of C2H2 :CO2 = 2:4 , i.e., if 2 moles of...The given reaction is C2H4+3O2→2CO2+2H2O . The given molecules of C2H4 is 8, O2 is 15, CO2 is 0 and...The given reaction is 2C4H10+13O2→8CO2+10H2O . The given moles of C4H10 is 4.20, O2 is 6.50, CO2 is...Answer the following questions about the conversion of the sucrose (C12H22O11) in sugarcane to...The reaction is given as shown below: C2H6O(l)→C4H10O(l)+H2O(l) The molecular formula of diethyl...Energy is required to do the work. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The total energy of...For the given reaction, A+B⇄C+Dequilibrium constant = Keq=[C]×[D][A]×[B] Let's calculate the K of...The magnitude of Keq reveals information about the composition of the reaction mixture at...The magnitude of Keq reveals information about the composition of the reaction mixture at...The given equilibrium reaction is represented as follows: CO(g) + Cl2(g)⇌COCl2(g) The value of...Given information: 3O2(g)⇌2O3(g) The equilibrium reaction is represented as follows: 3O2(g)⇌2O3(g)K...Given information: H2(g) + I2(g)⇌2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g)⇌2HI(g)K = [HI]2[H2][I2] Reactants and products...C2H4(g) + Cl2(g) ⇌ C2H4Cl2(g) According to the Le Chatelier's principle, adding more amount of...The pressure gauge as shown in the diagram has scale reading from 0 to 4000. Each unit is 500 psi...According to Boyle's law, the pressure of the ideal gas is inversely proportional to the volume of...According to Charles's law, the volume of gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of...According to Charles's law, the volume of gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of...According to Gay Lussac's law, the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin...The combined gas law is used to determine the unknown values. The combined gas law includes the...The combined gas law is used to determine the unknown values. The combined gas law includes the...The mole fraction is defined as the ratio of the mole of individual gas with total number of the...The change in temperature can be calculated by the following formula − Q=m×C×ΔT Specific heat of...The colloids are the class of mixtures that have particles size much greater than the solutions. The...The solubility of ionic solids is controlled by two basic principles as follows: 1. The compound...The solubility of ionic solids is controlled by two basic principles as follows: 1. The compound...The formula to calculate molarity is given as follows: Molarity(mol/L)=number of molesvolume(L)...The formula to calculate molarity is given as follows: Molarity(mol/L)=number of molesvolume(L)...The dilution formula is given as follows: C1V1=C2V2 Where, C1denotes the initial concentration...The formula to calculate the weight/volume percent is as follows: Weight/volume percent (mv) %=Mass...Since fructose is non-electrolyte, each mole of fructose gives one particle. This can be represented...Since fructose is non-electrolyte, each mole of fructose gives one particle. This can be represented...Reason for correct option: The Bronsted-Lowry acid can give H+ ions whereas a Bronsted-Lowry base...According to Conjugated acid-base pair concept. A strong acid forms a weak conjugated base whereas a...Given Information: [H3O+] = 10-8 M Calculation: Calculate [OH-] with the help of Kw expression: Kw =...Given Information: [H3O+] = 10-1 M Calculation: Calculate [OH-] with the help of Kw expression: Kw =...Given Information: [OH-] ions = 10-2 M Calculation: Calculate [H3O+(aq)] with the help of Kw...Given Information: [OH-] ions = 10-12 M Calculation: Calculate [H3O+(aq)] with the help of Kw...Given Information: [H3O+(aq)] ions = 5.3 ×10-3 M Calculation: Calculate [OH-] with the help of Kw...Given Information: [H3O+(aq)] ions = 6.3 ×10-4 M Calculate [OH-] with the help of Kw expression: Kw...Hydrobromic acid HBr is soluble in water. Here HBr acts as an acid as it gives H+ ion and forms Br-...Nitric acid HNO3 is soluble in water. Here HNO3 acts as an acid as it gives H+ ion and forms NO3−...In the molecular model of fluorine, orange balls represent neutrons, whereas blue balls represent...In the molecular model of fluorine, blue balls represent protons, whereas orange balls represent...Atomic number is equal to the number of protons in an element. Mass number = Number of protons +...The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in an element. Mass number = Number of protons +...To write a balanced chemical reaction following steps should be followed which are given as follows:...To write a balanced chemical reaction following steps should be followed which are given as follows:...Given Information: N0 = 64 mg t1/2 = 8 days Calculation: After 8.0 days, the initial concentration...Given Information: N0 = 124 mg t1/2 = 14 days Calculation: After 14.0 days, the initial...The given compound is as follows: The given compound can also be drawn as: This compound contains a...The structure of H2SO4 is as follows: In the structure of H2SO4 , no (C−H) bond is present. So, the...The given structure is as follows: In the compound, triple bonded carbon is bonded to two other...Given compound is as follows: ( CH3)2CH( CH2)6CH3 To −CH group two methyl (CH3) groups attached and...The compound is as follows: Convert ball and stick model to normal structure. Replace black balls by...Ball and stick model of methyl salicylate is as follows: Convert ball and stick model to normal...Functional groups are the atoms or group of atoms that gives chemical properties to an organic...Functional groups are the atoms or group of atoms that gives chemical properties to an organic...The given compound is CH3CH2CH2CH3. According to the above structure of compound, the terminal...As per the general formula of a straight-chain alkane is CnH2n+2 , number of hydrogen will be 2n+2...The longest carbon chain has 7 carbon. And there is a methyl group in the no 3 carbon. As the branch...The longest carbon chain has 5 carbons. And there are two methyl groups in the no 2 and 3 carbon. As...Saturated hydrocarbon in which carbon-carbon single bond is present is known as alkane. The general...Cyclic alkane is defined as an alkane in which series of atoms are combined to form a ring. The...Saturated hydrocarbon in which carbon-carbon single bond is present is known as alkane. The general...The reaction of (CH3)3CC(CH3)3 with O2(flame) is a combustion reaction that must lead to the...The given ball-and-stick model of anethole is: In ball-and-stick model, the black ball represents...Unsaturated ( C6H12 )alkene molecule react with H2 in the presence of Pd and form saturated alkanes....Unsaturated ( C4H8 )alkene molecules react with HCl and form saturated alkyl halides. Bond between...Unsaturated ( C4H8 )alkene molecules react with H2O and H2SO4 form alcohol. One-bond between a...Unsaturated 1-ethylcyclohexene,alkene molecule reacts with H2 in the presence of Pd and form...Unsaturated CH3CH=CHCH3 , alkene molecule reacts with HCl and form saturated alkyl halides. Bond...What alkene is needed as a starting material to prepare each of the following alkyl halides or...In alkenes, there is a carbon-carbon double bond and different groups are connected to the two...In alkenes there is a carbon-carbon double bond and different groups are connected to the two...The given compound is CH3CH2CH2OH. According to the above structure of compound, one hydroxyl group...C5H12O contains five membered main carbon chain. -OH group is connected to the main carbon chain...C8H18O contains seven membered main carbon chain. Methyl group is connected to the main carbon chain...Structure of the 3-hexanol contains six carbon length main carbon chain which connects to an alcohol...Structure of the 3-methyl-3-pentanol contains five carbon length main carbon chain which connects to...To get the dehydrated product of any alcohol, three steps must be followed: Locate the C atom in the...To get the oxidized product of any alcohol, three steps must be followed; Locate the C atom in the...To get the oxidized product of any alcohol, three steps must be followed: Locate the C atom in the...To consider as chiral, molecule or object and its mirror image should not superimpose. To consider...The CH3 groups and CH2 groups should be omitted since those atoms contain more than one H atom...To draw the structure of an aldehyde having the molecular formula C8H16O which has the six carbon...The given molecular formula of the aldehyde is: ( CH3)3CCH2CHO Here the numbering of the carbon...Aldehydes when made to react with potassium dichromate are known to form the corresponding...When an aldehyde reacts with H2 gas in the presence of palladium metal resulting product is an...When an aldehyde reacts with H2 gas in the presence of palladium metalresulting product is an...When a ketone reacts with H2 gas in the presence of palladium metal resulting product is the...When a ketone reacts with H2 gas in the presence of palladium metal resulting product is the...The molecular formula of organic compound represents the number of bonded atoms with their atomic...An organic compound in which carboxy functional group that is -COOH is bonded to the carbon atom is...An organic compound in which carboxy functional group that is -COOH is bonded to the carbon atom is...The reaction which results in the formation of at least one ester along with water on heating acids...The reaction which results in the formation of at least one ester along with water on heating acids...The reaction of carboxylic acid with ammonia or amines forms amide molecules. It involves the...The reaction of carboxylic acid with ammonia or amines forms amide molecules. It involves the...In the given ball and stick model of the compounds; Black ball = C atom White ball = H atom Red ball...Amines are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia with alkyl groups. 10 amines -...Amines are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia with alkyl groups. 10 amines -...Four structures of primary amines can be drawn with the formula C4H11N. Three structures of...Amines are derivatives which are derived from ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been...Amines are derivatives which are derived from ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been...Reason for correct option: Lipids are organic molecules composed of a large number of C-C and C-H...Given: Fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids, which consist of two parts; long hydrocarbon...Given: Fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids, which consist of two parts; long hydrocarbon...Fatty acids are long chain carboxylic acids, which consist of two parts; long hydrocarbon chains and...Fatty acids are long chain carboxylic acids, which consist of two parts, i.e., long hydrocarbon...Waxes are composed of fatty acid and higher alcohols. They have an ester functional group which is...Waxes are composed of fatty acid and higher alcohols. They have an ester functional group which is...Triacylglycerols are most abundant lipids which are mainly found in animal fat and vegetable oils....Sugar molecules can be named as D or L sugars according to their most oxidized carbon at the top of...The given monosaccharide is as follows: From the structure, the hydroxyl group to the carbon atom...The given monosaccharide is as follows: From the structure, the hydroxyl group to the carbon atom...Alanine is a hydrophobic amino acid also an ionic salt with strong electrostatic forces. Therefore,...For leucine the R group is CH2CH( CH3)2 and in L-isomer the amino group (-NH3+) group present in the...Amino acids that have the -NH3+ group on the left side of Fisher projection is called as L isomer....When amino acids joined to one another by amide bonds to form large molecules are called peptides....Side chains of amino acids are non-polar because only carbon and hydrogen atoms are present having...The activity of enzyme is affected by both the temperature and pH. By increasing temperature, rate...DNA consists of two polynucleotide strands which wind into a right-handed double helix. RNA is...Codons are written from 5 prime-end (5) to 3 prime-end (3) of mRNA. There is a unique triplet...Codons are written from 5 prime ends (5) to 3 prime ends (3) of mRNA. There is a unique triplet...Codons are written from 5 prime end (5) to 3 prime end (3) of mRNA. There is a unique triplet...Codons are written from 5 prime end (5) to 3 prime end (3) of mRNA. There is a unique triplet...Codons are written from 5 prime ends (5') to 3 prime ends (3') of mRNA. There is a specific sequence...Mitochondrion refers to a small organelle which is placed in the cytoplasm of the cell. It consists...The first stage in the catabolism is the digestion. Catabolism of the food starts with the digestion...Given: 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + H2O → 3-phosphoglycerate + HPO42- Energy change = -11.8...Given: 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + H2O → 3-phosphoglycerate + HPO42- Energy change = -11.8...Citric acid cycle is also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle or Krebs cycles. In this cycle, all...Citric acid cycle is also known as tricarboxylic acid cycle or Krebs cycles. In this cycle all...The given reaction is represented as follows: In the given reaction oxidation of β-hydroxy acyl CoA...The metabolism of glucose starts from the glycolysis process. It is the first step in cellular...The metabolism of glucose starts from the glycolysis process. It is the first step in cellular...Fatty acids are catabolized through the β-oxidation process in which 2− carbon acetyl CoA units...Fatty acids are catabolized through the β-oxidation process in which 2− carbon acetyl CoA units...Glucose (a carbohydrate) starts with the glycolysis pathway which converts glucose to pyruvate.The...The fluids in the body are intracellular fluid, interstitial fluid, plasma and some other fluids....

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