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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas react violently to form water. When this occurs, a very loud noise is heard.

Draw the Lewis structures for hydrogen gas, oxygen gas, and water.

State whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar and why. Explain how the polarity of these molecules is related to hydrogen and oxygen existing in the gas phase at room temperature and water existing in the liquid phase at room temperature.

Which is lower in energy for this reaction a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases or water? How do you know this is true?

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The Lewis structures of hydrogen, oxygen and water molecules should be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

Lewis structure of a molecule essentially represents how the valence electrons in an atom combine with valence electrons if another atom to achieve the nearest noble gas configuration.

Explanation

In the hydrogen molecule, two H atoms make a single covalent bond between them to achieve stable electron configuration of He gas. Each H atom has a single electron in the valence shell. In order to achieve the most adjacent noble gas configuration which has just two electrons in the valence shell each hydrogen atom share its electron with the other hydrogen atom. This is represented clearly in the Lewis structure.

In the oxygen molecule each oxygen atom has six electrons in the valence shell. Each oxygen atom would share two electrons with the other oxygen atom in order to achieve eight electrons(octet) which is the most adjacent noble gas configuration achieved by Ne.This is clearly represented in the Lewis structure.

In the water molecule there are two types of atoms in the molecule. H atoms share the single electron in its valence electron with a single electron of the oxygen atom to achieve the stable configuration of two electrons...

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The polarities of hydrogen, oxygen and water molecules should be discussed and relate how these polarities are influential in determining their state of matter.

Concept Introduction:

The polarity of a bond depends on the electronegativity difference between the two atoms or two chemical groups involved in the bond. Higher the electronegativity difference more polar will be the bond. However even if the individual bonds have polarities, a molecule could have zero dipole moments because of cancelling the polarities in opposing directions. Electronegativity is the ability to attract the bonding electrons towards an atom.

Different types of substances exist at different states of matter. The states of matter depend on the intermolecular attractive forces which again depends on the polarities of the molecules that are involved.

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

The species lower in energy for this reaction (reactant/(s) or the products) should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

An explosive reaction gives an indication about the enthalpy of the reaction. Explosive reactions are exothermic reactions meaning that the energy of the products is less than that of the reactants.

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Ch-12 P-3ALQCh-12 P-4ALQCh-12 P-5ALQCh-12 P-6ALQCh-12 P-7ALQCh-12 P-8ALQCh-12 P-9ALQCh-12 P-10ALQCh-12 P-11ALQCh-12 P-12ALQCh-12 P-13ALQCh-12 P-14ALQCh-12 P-15ALQCh-12 P-16ALQCh-12 P-17ALQCh-12 P-18ALQCh-12 P-19ALQCh-12 P-20ALQCh-12 P-21ALQCh-12 P-22ALQCh-12 P-1QAPCh-12 P-2QAPCh-12 P-3QAPCh-12 P-4QAPCh-12 P-5QAPCh-12 P-6QAPCh-12 P-7QAPCh-12 P-8QAPCh-12 P-9QAPCh-12 P-10QAPCh-12 P-11QAPCh-12 P-12QAPCh-12 P-13QAPCh-12 P-14QAPCh-12 P-15QAPCh-12 P-16QAPCh-12 P-17QAPCh-12 P-18QAPCh-12 P-19QAPCh-12 P-20QAPCh-12 P-21QAPCh-12 P-22QAPCh-12 P-23QAPCh-12 P-24QAPCh-12 P-25QAPCh-12 P-26QAPCh-12 P-27QAPCh-12 P-28QAPCh-12 P-29QAPCh-12 P-30QAPCh-12 P-31QAPCh-12 P-32QAPCh-12 P-33QAPCh-12 P-34QAPCh-12 P-35QAPCh-12 P-36QAPCh-12 P-37QAPCh-12 P-38QAPCh-12 P-39QAPCh-12 P-40QAPCh-12 P-41QAPCh-12 P-42QAPCh-12 P-43QAPCh-12 P-44QAPCh-12 P-45QAPCh-12 P-46QAPCh-12 P-47QAPCh-12 P-48QAPCh-12 P-49QAPCh-12 P-50QAPCh-12 P-51QAPCh-12 P-52QAPCh-12 P-53QAPCh-12 P-54QAPCh-12 P-55QAPCh-12 P-56QAPCh-12 P-57QAPCh-12 P-58QAPCh-12 P-59QAPCh-12 P-60QAPCh-12 P-61QAPCh-12 P-62QAPCh-12 P-63QAPCh-12 P-64QAPCh-12 P-65QAPCh-12 P-66QAPCh-12 P-67QAPCh-12 P-68QAPCh-12 P-69QAPCh-12 P-70QAPCh-12 P-71QAPCh-12 P-72QAPCh-12 P-73QAPCh-12 P-74QAPCh-12 P-75QAPCh-12 P-76QAPCh-12 P-77QAPCh-12 P-78QAPCh-12 P-79QAPCh-12 P-80QAPCh-12 P-81QAPCh-12 P-82QAPCh-12 P-83QAPCh-12 P-84QAPCh-12 P-85QAPCh-12 P-86QAPCh-12 P-87QAPCh-12 P-88QAPCh-12 P-89APCh-12 P-90APCh-12 P-91APCh-12 P-92APCh-12 P-93APCh-12 P-94APCh-12 P-95APCh-12 P-96APCh-12 P-97APCh-12 P-98APCh-12 P-99APCh-12 P-100APCh-12 P-101APCh-12 P-102APCh-12 P-103APCh-12 P-104APCh-12 P-105APCh-12 P-106APCh-12 P-107APCh-12 P-108APCh-12 P-109APCh-12 P-110APCh-12 P-111APCh-12 P-112APCh-12 P-113APCh-12 P-114APCh-12 P-115APCh-12 P-116APCh-12 P-117APCh-12 P-118APCh-12 P-119APCh-12 P-120APCh-12 P-121APCh-12 P-122APCh-12 P-123CPCh-12 P-124CPCh-12 P-125CPCh-12 P-126CPCh-12 P-127CPCh-12 P-128CPCh-12 P-1CRCh-12 P-2CRCh-12 P-3CRCh-12 P-4CRCh-12 P-5CRCh-12 P-6CRCh-12 P-7CRCh-12 P-8CRCh-12 P-9CRCh-12 P-10CRCh-12 P-11CRCh-12 P-12CRCh-12 P-13CRCh-12 P-14CRCh-12 P-15CRCh-12 P-16CRCh-12 P-17CRCh-12 P-18CRCh-12 P-19CRCh-12 P-20CRCh-12 P-21CRCh-12 P-22CRCh-12 P-23CRCh-12 P-24CRCh-12 P-25CRCh-12 P-26CRCh-12 P-27CRCh-12 P-28CRCh-12 P-29CRCh-12 P-30CRCh-12 P-31CRCh-12 P-32CRCh-12 P-33CRCh-12 P-34CRCh-12 P-35CRCh-12 P-36CRCh-12 P-37CRCh-12 P-38CRCh-12 P-39CRCh-12 P-40CRCh-12 P-41CRCh-12 P-42CRCh-12 P-43CRCh-12 P-44CRCh-12 P-45CRCh-12 P-46CRCh-12 P-47CRCh-12 P-48CR

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