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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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Describe the sublevels and orbitals that constitute the third and fourth principal energy levels of hydrogen. How is each of the orbitals designated and what! are the general shapes of their probability maps?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The question asks to specify the sublevels and orbitals that constitutes the third and fourth principal energy levels of hydrogen atom. Furthermore, it requires one to explain how each orbital is designated and to mention the general shapes of probability maps of the corresponding orbitals.

Concept Introduction:

It can be shown experimentally by using the emission spectrum of a hydrogen atoms in gaseous state that hydrogen atom has discrete energy levels. These discrete energy levels are known as the principal energy levels. Each of these principal energy levels have certain energy associated with them. They are designated by the principal quantum number n which can take integer values form 1 onwards.

Each of these principal energy levels are subdivided into sublevels. Principal level 1 consists of one sublevel, principal level 2 has two sublevels, principal level 3 has three sublevels, and principal level 4 has four sublevels. These sublevels contain spaces for the electron that is called as orbitals.

Explanation

There are discrete energy levels in the hydrogen atom. These are known as principle energy levels and represented by integers. These levels are further divided into sublevels. The following diagram explains this is better way:

One can divide the principal levels into various numbers of sublevels using the triangle analogy shown above. Principal level 1 consists of one sublevel, principal level 2 has two sublevels, principal level 3 has three sublevels, and principal level 4 has four sublevels according to the diagram above...

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