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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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For three simple molecules of your own choice, apply the rules for writing Lewis structures. Write your discussion as if you are explaining the method to someone who is not familiar with Lewis structures.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The rules for writing Lewis structures should be applied for three simple molecules and should be discussed.

Concept Introduction:

A representation of a molecule that shows the arrangement of valence electrons among the atoms in the molecule is said to be a Lewis structure. Lewis structures are based on the observation, formation of stable compound required to achieve noble gas electron configuration of the atoms in the compound. In writing Lewis structures only the valence electrons are included.

For writing Lewis structures, the following rules are followed:

  • Obtain the sum of valence electrons from all of the atoms.
  • One pair of electrons is used to form a bond between each pair of bonded atoms.
  • Arrange the remaining electrons to satisfy duet rule or octet rule.
Explanation

In writing the Lewis structure for NH3 ; sum of valence electrons is 8. Hydrogen has 1 valence electron, hence 3 valence electrons from 3 hydrogens and Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons. Using a pair of electrons per bond, we draw 3 N-H bonds, using a line to indicate each pair of bonding electrons. So 6 electrons are used for the bonds. Remaining 2 electrons are arranged around the atoms to achieve a noble gas electron configuration for each atom. Nitrogen needs eight electrons to have a noble gas electron configuration. Nitrogen atom already has 6 electrons from the three bonds, so nitrogen atom needs only 2 other electrons to complete the octet. So we draw a nonbonding electron pair on nitrogen atom. H obeys to the duet rule, so it needs only 2 electrons to complete the valence shell. Hydrogen already completed the valence shell by bonding.

Lewis structure for NH3 :

In writing Lewis structure for H2 S, sum of valence electrons is 8. Sulfur has 6 valence electrons, and hydrogen has 1 valence electron, so two from two hydrogens. We draw two H-S bonds, using pair of electrons per bond, using a line to indicate each pair of bonding electrons. So 4 electrons are used for the bonding. Remaining 4 electrons are arranged around the atoms to achieve a noble gas electron configuration for each atom

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