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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Sketch the resonance structures for the N2O molecule. Is the hybridization of the N atoms the same or different in each structure? Describe the orbitals involved in bond formation by the central N atom.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The resonance structures has to be drawn for the N2O molecule, check whether the hybridization of the Nitrogen atoms are the same or different in each resonance structure. The orbitals involved in bond formation by the central nitrogen atom should be determined and described.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.

sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.

sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tend to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions.

Explanation

Resonance structures of (N2O ) molecule can be drawn as follows,

The presence of two nitrogen atom with one oxygen molecule is indicated above, here nitrogen (N) has least electronegative it goes to the center of the molecule. The oxygen atoms are more electronegative and therefore it has a negative formal charge.

The hybridization of nitrogen monoxide (N2O) molecule

The  N2O molecule (N,O) two atoms are connected with one by one above the resonance structure, than two atoms (N,O) are linked to second nitrogen. The last (third) bond from oxygen is to nitrogen and nitrogen is attached to the remaining oxygen. 

The (N) Nitrogen atoms have three half-filled sp3 orbital and one filled with a lone pair, and electronic configuration method shown below.

Complete (spdf)notationof(N)=7[N]1s22s22p3FilledoneloanpairȀ

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