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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The simple valence bond picture of O2 does not agree with the molecular orbital view. Compare these two theories with regard to the peroxide ion, O22–.

(a) Draw an electron dot structure for O22–. What is the bond order of the ion?

(b) Write the molecular orbital electron configuration for O22–. What is the bond order based on this approach?

(c) Do the two theories of bonding lead to the same magnetic character and bond order fo r O22– ss?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron dot structure for O22 has to be drawn and its bond order should be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Valance bond (VBT) theory: This theory explain a chemical bonding theory that explains the bonding between two atoms is caused by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals. The two atoms share each other's unpaired electron to form a filled orbital to form a hybrid orbital and bond together.

Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.

It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.

The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Explanation

Electron dot structure for peroxide ion (O22) can be drawn as,

  [:O....O

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Molecular orbital electron configuration for  O22 has to be written and its bond order should be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Check whether the two theories lead to the same magnetic character and bond order for peroxide ion or not.

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Valance bond (VBT) theory: This theory explain a chemical bonding theory that explains the bonding between two atoms is caused by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals. The two atoms share each other's unpaired electron to form a filled orbital to form a hybrid orbital and bond together.

Atoms with unpaired electrons are called Paramagnetic. Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a magnet.

Atoms with paired electrons are called diamagnetic. Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by  a magnet.

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