   Chapter 9, Problem 62SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

What is the connection between bond order, bond length, and bond energy? Use ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), and acetylene (C2H2) as examples.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The connection between bond order, bond length and bond energy has to be determined using the given molecules ethane, ethylene and acetylene as examples.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization:  When the atomic orbitals mix to form new atomic orbitals, the new orbitals have the same total electron capacity as the old ones. The properties and energies of the new, hybridized orbitals are an 'average' of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: The bond order has defined as the net number of bonding electrons pairs linking a pair of atoms. This same concept can be applied directly to molecular orbital theory, but not bond order is defined as.

Bondorder=12[(numberofelectronsinbondingmolecularorbitals)-(numberofelectronsinantibondingmolecularorbitals)]

• Higher the bond order, higher will be the bond energy.
• Higher the bond order, shorter will be the bond length.
Explanation

Bond order indicates the strength of the bond in the molecule and it indicates the number of bonds between atoms

Ethane is an alkane and only single bond is present. Thus the bond order present in ethane is one.

Bond order of alkene CH3CH3=1

Ethylene is an alkene and double bond is present. Thus the bond order present in ethylene is two.

Bond order of alkene CH2=CH2=2

Acetylene is an alkyne and triple bond is present between atoms

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