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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Consider the following list of small molecules and ions: C2 O2, CN, O2. CO, NO, NO+, C22, OF. Identify

(a) all species that have a bond order of 3

(b) all species that are paramagnetic

(c) species that have a fractional bond order

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

All the species which have a bond order of 3 should be identified from the given list of molecules. 

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Explanation

The list of given molecules and their electronic configuration in MO term and bond order are given below,

MoleculeNo.ofelectronsElectronconfigurationBondorder=12(NbNa)C212(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2( π2p)4842=1O217(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)3 1072=1.5CN14(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2( π2p)4(σ2p)21042=3O216(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 1062=2CO14(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2( π2p)4(σ2p)21042=3NO15(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)11052=2

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

All the species which are paramagnetic should be identified from the given list of molecules. 

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Atoms with unpaired electrons are called Paramagnetic. Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a magnet.

Atoms with paired electrons are called diamagnetic. Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by  a magnet

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

All the species which have fractional bond order should be identified from the given list of molecules. 

Concept Introduction:

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

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