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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Carbon dioxide (CO2), dinitrogen monoxide (N2O), the azide ion (N3), and the cyanate ion (OCN) have the same geometry* and the same number of valence shell electrons. However, there are significant differences in their electronic structures.

  1. (a) What hybridization is assigned to the central atom in each species? Which orbitals overlap to form the bonds between atoms in each structure.
  2. (b) Evaluate the resonance structures of these four species. Which most closely describe the bonding in these species? Comment on the differences in bond lengths and bond orders that you expect to see based on the resonance structures.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization assigned to the central atom in each of the given species and the orbitals overlap to form the bonds between atoms in each structure should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations is mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Explanation

Hybridizations in CO2 molecule

The CO2 molecule is linear in structure, the central carbon atom participated for sp hybridization, the terminal atoms are used their sp2 hybrid orbitals to overlap and to form the bonds between the other atoms.

Hybridizations in N2O molecule

The N2O molecule is linear in structure; the central nitrogen atom is sp hybridized and so the atom uses its sp hybrid orbital to overlap and to form the bonds between the other atoms such as oxygen. Oxygen atom is sp3 hybridized.

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Resonance structure for all the given species should be drawn; using these structures bond lengths and bond orders has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Resonance: These concepts explain bonding that describes the delocalization of electrons within the molecules.

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.

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