Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Nitrogen, N2, can ionize to form N2+ or add an electron to give N2. Using molecular orbital theory, compare these species with regard to (a) their magnetic character, (b) net number of π bonds, (c) bond order, (d) bond length, and (e) bond strength.

Interpretation Introduction


Using MO theory compare N2+ and N2- ions with regards to the following,

  1. (a) Magnetic character
  2. (b) Net number of π bonds
  3. (c) Bond order
  4. (d) Bond length
  5. (e) Bond strength

Concept Introduction:

Valance bond (VBT) theory: This theory explain a chemical bonding theory that explains the bonding between two atoms is caused by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals. The two atoms share each other's unpaired electron to form a filled orbital to form a hybrid orbital and bond together.

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.


Bond length is inversely proportional to the bond order.

Atoms with unpaired electrons are called Paramagnetic. Paramagnetic atoms are attracted to a magnet.

Atoms with paired electrons are called diamagnetic. Diamagnetic atoms are repelled by  a magnet

Sigma (σ) bonds are the bonds in which shared hybrid orbital’s electron density are concentrated along the internuclear axis.

Pi (π) bonds are the bonds in which shared unhybridized orbital’s (p, d, etc) electron density are concentrated in above and below of the plane of the molecule.


Electron configuration of N2,N2+,andN2 are written below,

N2(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2( π2p)4(σ2p)2N2+(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2( π2p)4(σ2p)1N2(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2( π2p)4(σ2p)2( π*2p)1

Calculation method of bond order of nitrogen molecule

The nitrogen (N2) atoms have eight electrons available in bonding molecular orbitals and two electrons are available in antibonding molecular orbitals so this bond order has shown below. 


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