Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Lactic acid is a natural compound found in sour milk.


(a) How many π bond occur in lactic acid? How many u bonds?

(b) What is the hybridization of atoms 1, 2, and 3?

(c) Which CO bond is the shortest in the molecule? Which CO bond is the strongest?

(d) What are the approximate value of the bond angles A, B, and C?


Interpretation Introduction


The number of σandπ in lactic acid should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Sigma (σ) bonds are the bonds in which shared hybrid orbital’s electron density are concentrated along the internuclear axis.

Pi (π) bonds are the bonds in which shared unhybridized orbital’s (p, d, etc) electron density are concentrated in above and below of the plane of the molecule.



Given structure of Lactic acid molecule is,



Interpretation Introduction


The hybridizations of atoms (numbered 1,2 , and 3) in lactic acid molecule should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.

sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.

sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,


Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,



Interpretation Introduction


The shortest and strongest CO bond in the molecule should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Single covalent bonds are formed when electron pairs are centered between two atoms. This bond is the longest and the weakest bond than double and triple bond.

Double bond is stronger and shorter than single bond.


Interpretation Introduction


The approximate values of the angles marked A, B, and C in the given molecule should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tend to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions.

Bond angle: The bond angle is the angle formed between three atoms at least two bonds.


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