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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Phosphoserine is a less-common amino acid.

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(a) Identify the hybridizations of atoms I through 5.

(b) What are the approximate values of the bond angles A, B. C, and D?

(c) What are the most polar bonds in the molecule?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridizations of atoms (numbered 1,2,3,4, and 5) in phosphoserine molecule should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.

sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.

sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.

sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

Explanation

Given structure of phosphoserine molecule is,

  1. (1) This carbon atom is sp2 hybridized; three electron pairs around it results trigonal geometry.
  2. (2) The oxygen atom is sp3 hybridized; four electron pairs (2 lone pair+2 bond pair) around it results a bent structure

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The approximate values of the angles marked A, B, C and D in the given molecule should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tend to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions.

Bond angle: The bond angle is the angle formed between three atoms at least two bonds.

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationGeometryBondangleAX2spLinear180°AX3,AX2Bsp2Trigonalplanar120°AX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp3Tetrahedral109.5°AX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3dTrigonalbipyramidal120°,90°AX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d2Octahedral90°ACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Most polar bonds in the molecule should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Polar covalent bond involves an unequal sharing of electrons between two bonded atoms; it creates a partial separation of charge and a dipole moment.

Covalent bonds are polar, if there is a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms.

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