   Chapter 9, Problem 30GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

What is the O—S—O angle and the hybrid orbital set used by sulfur in each of the following molecules or ions? (a) SO2 (b) SO3 (c) SO32– (d) SO42– Do all have the same value for the O—S—O angle? Does the S atom in all these species use the same hybrid orbitals?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The OSO bond angle and the hybrid orbital set used by sulfur in the given molecules have to be determined. Check whether the all molecules have the same OSO bond angle or not and whether the sulfur atom in all the species uses the same hybrid orbital or not.

Concept Introduction:

• Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
• It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
• The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Hybridization:

• It is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
• Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
• sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
• sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
• sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tends to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations is mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationGeometryBondangleAX2spLinear180°AX3,AX2Bsp2Trigonalplanar120°AX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp3Tetrahedral109.5°AX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3dTrigonalbipyramidal120°,90°AX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d2Octahedral90°ACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

Explanation

The correct Lewis structures for given the given molecules are shown below.

From the Lewis structure the number of electrons pairs and their corresponding hybridization can be identified. If the hybridization is known then the OSO bond angle in the given molecules can be determined.

According to the above mentioned concepts the hybrid orbital used by sulfur in each of the given molecule and the possible OSO bond angle in it are listed below,

MoleculeHybridizationGeometryOSOBondangle(a)SO2sp2Bent120°(b)SO3sp2Trigona

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