Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Show how valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory rationalize the O—O bond order of 1.5 in ozone.

Interpretation Introduction


The bond order of OO in O3 is 1.5 . Rationalize this value using MO and VR theory.

Concept Introduction:

Valance bond (VBT) theory: This theory explain a chemical bonding theory that explains the bonding between two atoms is caused by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals. The two atoms share each other's unpaired electron to form a filled orbital to form a hybrid orbital and bond together.

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

According to this theory there are two types of orbitals,

  1. (1) Bonding orbitals
  2. (2) Antibonding orbitals

Electrons in molecules are filled in accordance with the energy; the anti-bonding orbital has more energy than the bonding orbitals.

The electronic configuration of oxygen molecule O2 can be represented as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)2 

The * represent the antibonding orbital

Bond order: It is the measure of number of electron pairs shared between two atoms.



Analyzing for electron dot formula or Lewis structure for ozone molecule

Dot formula of Ozone (O3) molecule

The oxygen molecule has one sigma bond and two pi-bond meanwhile the ozone have one sigma bond two phi-bond (bonding and antibonding orbitals).

Calculation method of bond order of ozone molecule

This O3 have two different resonance structure, so we simply calculating for fallowing method.    


Analyzing for Ozone (O3) molecule

  The molecular orbital electronic configuration of ozone has (σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)4  so this molecule have only one sigma bond

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