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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

These questions are not designated as to type or location in the chapter. They may combine several concepts.

Draw the Lewis structure for AlF4. What are its electron-pair and molecular geometries? What orbitals on Al and F overlap to form bonds between these elements? What are the formal charges on the atoms? Is this a reasonable charge distribution?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The Lewis structure of AlF4, its electron-pair and molecular geometries, orbital on Al and F overlap to form bonds between these elements and the formal charges on the atoms should be determined. And then check whether the molecule has a reasonable charge distribution.

Concept Introduction:

  • Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.
  • It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
  • The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Hybridization:

  • It is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.
  • Geometry of a molecule can be predicted by knowing its hybridization.
  • sp3  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and three p-orbital.
  • sp2  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization between one s-orbital and two p-orbitals.
  • sp  hybrid orbitals is produced by hybridization of single s-orbital and single p-orbital.

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons

VSEPR Theory:

As the name itself indicates that the basis for this theory is the electron pair that is bonded electron present in either single or double bonds or lone pair electrons, present in the valence shell tends to repel each other which then tends to be in position in order to minimize the repulsions

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations is mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

Geometry of different type of molecules with respect to the number of electron pairs are mentioned below,

TypeofMoleculeNo.ofatomsbondedtocentralatomsNo.oflonepairsoncentralatomArrangementofelectronpairsMolecularGeometryAB220LinearLinearAB330TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanarAB440TetrahedralTetrahedralAB550TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidalAB660OctahedralOctahedral

A formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electronegativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

This method is used to identify the most probable Lewis structures if more than one possibility exists for a compound.

The Lewis structure with formal charge on each of the atoms close to zero is taken as the most plausible structure.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(no.ofvalenceelectroninatom)12(no.ofbondingelectrons)(no.ofnon-bondingelectrons)

Explanation

Lewis structure of AlF4 can be drawn as,

There are four electron pairs around the central atom Aluminum. The number of electron pairs around the central atom in a molecule can be used to find the electron pair and molecular geometry of the molecule. A molecule with four bond pair of electrons around the central atom has tetrahedral geometry. The tetrahedral geometry is one of the results of sp3 hybrid orbitals. Therefore, AlF bonds are formed by overlap of an Alsp3 orbital with a p orbital on each F atoms.

The formal charge on Aluminum and fluorine atoms can be calculated using the equation,

    Formalcharge(FC)=(no.ofvalenceelectroninatom)-12(no.ofbondingelectrons)-(no

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